By Amandeep Kaur

Accidents are the main cause of injury and even death in children. People only relate accidents to traffic accident or accidents in outdoor activities. However, as a matter of fact, the place where people regard as the safest place – “home” … hides many “hazards”. The main cause of home accident is general negligence of safety at home. This pamphlet aims at providing some measures in preventing home accident, first aid measures and how to call for help.

Household injuries are one of the top reasons behind the fact that kids under age of 3 visit the Emergency, and nearly 70% of the children who die from unintentional injuries at home are 4 years old and under. Young kids have the highest risk of being injured at home because that’s where they spend most of their time.

Supervision is the best way to prevent injuries, in the home and out, but even the most watchful parents can’t keep kids completely out of harm’s way every second of the day.


In general an unplanned, unexpected, and undesigned (not purposefully caused) event which occurs suddenly and causes injury or loss, a decrease in value of the resources, or an increase in liabilities. As a technical term ‘accident’ does not have a clearly defined legal meaning.

 Ways of accidents of children at home

  1. Fall
  2. Chocking
  3. Burn/scald
  4. Poisoning
  5. Cuts
  6. Drowning

A detailed discussion on these are as follows:



Unstable gait of the toddler, presence of objects on floor, lack of supervision, curiosity of the children etc. When children start to move around on their own, there is an increased danger of them pulling objects down on top of themselves.


  • Keep floors free of toys and obstructions.
  • Exercise close supervision when toddler learns to walk.
  • Never leave babies unattended on raised surfaces.
  • Check constantly floor surface for wear and tear.
  • Keep floor dry.
  • Always ensure bed-rail of the baby cot is raised when the baby is in the cot.
  • Always use a securely fitted safety harness in a pram, pushchair or highchair.
  • Windows and doors must be locked to avoid misadventure by children.
  • Avoid placing “step-stones” such as a chair next to a window.
  • Take extra care to avoid side-turning of a baby chair.
  • Being conscious of your kids health means making sure any trailing electrical leads, table cloth edges and dish towels are out of reach in order to help prevent accidents happening.

First Aid:

  1. Don’t panic. Call for help if necessary.
  2. Check the level of consciousness of the infant/child.
  3. Examine the child if airway is clear (e.g. can talk, cry or not); if breathing is adequate and circulation is normal (observe colour of the face, depth and rate of breathing).
  4. If breathing and circulation are normal, check for any other injuries on the body.
  5. If bleeding occurs, ensure there is no foreign body in the wound. Apply direct pressure to stop bleeding by covering clean gauze on it and add pressure on the gauze by your hand. Elevate the injured limb.
  6. If deformity is seen on the injured part, do not move it and call for help immediately.



Accidental swallowing of foreign body, strangulation, covering of head by blankets, accidental suffocation by pillow while baby sleeps in a prone position, near-drowning etc.


  • Choose toys proportionately with the age of children. Avoid toys with detachable small parts.
  • Ensure small objects are kept out of reach of children.
  • Pull cords on curtains and blinds should be kept short and out of reach of children.
  • Strings and plastic bags should be kept out of reach of children.
  • Foldable furniture should be properly placed and locked. Instruct children not to play with them.
  • Instruct children not to play while eating.
  • Never let children use milk bottle by themselves without adult’s supervision.
  • Never use pillow for baby under one year of age. Do not use large and heavy blanket. Never let the blanket cover the face of children during sleep.
  • Avoid sleeping with baby on the same bed.
  • Never leave children alone in a bath tub or basin filled with water.
  • Bucket filled with water must be covered and keep children away from it.

First Aid:

  1. Do not panic. Remove the cause from the patient.
  2. Call for help immediately.
  3. Perform CPR if necessary.



Scald by hot water, burn by fire, touch on hot objects such as cooking utensils, etc.


  • For adults, never hold a hot drink/food and a child at the same time.
  • Ensure milk, congee or other food stuff is at a reasonable temperature before feeding.
  • Ensure proper fence or door is installed at the entrance of kitchen. Such must be closed at all times. Instruct children not to go into kitchen.
  • While cooking, pay extra attention to the stove fire and the cooking utensil. Turn the pan handle away from the front, and close to the wall.
  • When running a bath for a child, always test water temperature beforehand.
  • All hot objects including an iron or containers with hot matter must not be placed near the margin of a table. Avoid using tablecloth. Matches and lighters should be placed out of reach of children.
  • Instruct children not to wander around when adults are preparing for a meal.
  • Install proper cover to sockets.
  • Warn children to never play with fire.

First Aid:

  1. Do not panic. If necessary, call for help.
  2. Examine the child if airway is clear (e.g. can talk, cry or not); if breathing is adequate and circulation is normal (observe colour of the face, depth and rate of breathing).
  3. If breathing and circulation are normal, check for the burn or scald injures on the body.
  4. Rinse the injury site with tap water for about 10 minutes. If the child feels chilled, stop rinsing.
  5. Cover the injury site with sterile gauze. Dress with bandages.
  6. Never apply toothpaste, soy sauce or other ointments on the injured sites.
  7. Do not puncture any blister.
  8. Do not tear off any burned clothing that sticks on the injured site.



Food poisoning, accidental swallowing of drugs, detergents, insecticides, etc.


  • Keep medicines and chemicals out of sight and reach of children, preferably in an isolated, locked cabinet.
  • Always store chemicals in their original containers with appropriate labels.
  • Never tell children drugs are “sweets” as this may give a wrong idea to children.
  • Ensure toys and dining utensils bought; meet the international standard, e.g. colouring materials being non-toxic etc.

First Aid:

  1. Do not panic. Call for help immediately.
  2. Examine the child if the airway is clear (e.g. can talk, cry or not); if breathing is adequate and circulation is normal (observe colour of the face, depth and rate of breathing).
  3. Start CPR if necessary. Be cautious not to contact any chemicals.
  4. If the child is unconscious but the airway is clear, breathing & circulation are normal, place in a lateral position.
  5. Bring along with any vomits and remains of drugs taken when seeking medical treatment.

e)  CUTS

Any cut means that there will be some blood, and this can be one of the most difficult things involved in first aid for children.

Apply pressure to stop the bleeding and apply an antiseptic to the area. Assessing the situation is important, but (generally speaking) if the blood stops following pressure, it is likely to be a minor cut that will not need stitches.


Young children can drown in very shallow water, so should be supervised at all times when near it. This includes ornamental garden ponds, water features and even baths.


  1. If necessary, call for ambulance service.
  2. Do not panic.
  3. Tell the call-taker how the injury happens and which part of the patient’s body is injured.
  4. Tell the call-taker if the child is conscious.
  5. Clearly tell the call-taker the address where the accident happens, the route leading to this address, and your contact telephone number.
  6. Do not hang up the phone until the call-taker had no further question. Do not rush.


Accident cannot be completely avoided, but its occurrence can be prevented. To prevent accident to children, adults should pay more attention to home safety. They should also clear any hidden “hazards” at home and teach children about safety. If accidents happen, stay calm and call for help immediately.



Essence of learning a foreign language including English

By: P. Lahiri

Language can be defined as a human system of communication that uses arbitrary signals, such as voice sounds, gestures, and/ or written symbols. From this definition of language it is clear that the term language does not exclude symbols, gestures or motions, as excluding these would mean denying the language of the deaf community. Human beings use language to express their inner thoughts and emotions, to comprehend complex and abstract thought, to learn to communicate with others, to fulfil human wants and needs as well as to establish social rules and maintain culture. “Language is an extremely important way of interacting with the people around us. We use language to let others know how we feel, what we need, and to ask questions. Language is the light of the mind” – said John Stuart Mill. Human beings have this unique capability of expressing infinite ideas (sentences) with a limited set of symbols (speech, sounds and words). No other species known to date is capable of this art though limited vocalisations by the chimpanzee or some birds are a kind meaningful communication within their species. In fact, language is a cognition that truly makes us humans.

Language Acquisition: Now the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language and then to produce and use words and sentences to communicate is called Language acquisition. Researchers have categorised language acquisition into two phases – first-language acquisition and second-language acquisition. First-language acquisition is a universal process regardless of the home language. Human infants listen to the sounds around them, begin to imitate them, and eventually start producing words of the language the family speaks. Second-language acquisition presupposes knowledge in a first language and comprises the stages an individual goes through as he or she learns the elements of a new language, such as vocabulary, phonological components, grammatical structures and writing systems. The most common instance of second-language acquisition is when a child who speaks a native language other than a foreign language goes to school for the first time and is exposed to people and peers speaking another language. Children find it much easier picking up that second language. This is not to suggest that for others at a later age learning a second language would be that much difficult; but obviously it will need a lot more practice, time and dedication.

Learning a second language is as exciting as it is beneficial at all ages. The benefits are practical, intellectual as well as based on aspirations. In this age of globalisation fluency in a second language opens up a world of opportunities. Nelson Mandela, the great revolutionary and later the President of South Africa aptly said If you talk to a man in a language he understands, that goes to his head. If you talk to him in his own language – that goes to his heart.” Also in this regard, the quote of the Austrian-British philosopher, Ludwig Wittgenstein, is as significant – “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world.”

Some of the more important benefits of learning a second language are: Better job prospects, satisfying travel experience, exposure to new cultures, clearer understanding of the world, greater insight into the first language, improved memory function and a profound sense of achievement.

While teaching a foreign language following points have to be factored in:

  • language spoken at home
  • quantum of opportunity to practice the second language
  • internal motivation of the learner
  • reason that the second language is needed (e.g., learning for school purposes, to converse with a friend or for work)

The oldest and the traditional method of teaching a foreign language had been the grammar–translation method also called the classical method which was historically employed for teaching the two classical European languages, Greek and Latin. Under this method, in what is called grammar–translation classes, students are made to learn grammatical rules which they apply in translating sentences from the native language to the target language that is sought to be taught. This method envisages reading a particular text in the source language and writing or reproducing it in the target language mainly paying attention to the form of the sentences. By focusing only on reading and writing, this method undermines speaking and listening. In the Grammar–translation classes, usually conducted in the native language of the students, two things are achieved namely they start learning grammar rules i.e. memorising by repetition and then apply the grammar rules deductively to translate a text of native language into the target language helping the students to further their general intellectual development. Despite the fact that this method of learning a foreign language originated in medieval times it remains to this day, for whatever reasons, the most popular method of learning a foreign language in high school. The likely reason could be that progress in learning foreign language could easily be evaluated by making students take these translation tests.

Notwithstanding the popularity of this method in foreign language instruction, this method has been the single most dominant reason for making learners to hate learning a foreign language. No wonder the method has miserably failed to make people achieve fluency in a foreign language. This shortcoming has sparked a debate as to how important it is to learn grammar in learning a language. While not minimising the importance of learning language grammar, many successful language learners agree that prioritising on learning of grammar is not the best path to tread, in learning a language. Nevertheless, this is not to suggest that one has no need to learn grammar. The only point to emphasise here is that learning grammar can be put off till such time one gets reasonable communicative proficiency in the language much as a child learns a language by listening to others speak it. The fear of grammatical error may create a mental block in learning a language. Grammar really makes sense only if a learner has been exposed to the language for a while. But in the final analysis, if one wants to master a language grammar has to be learnt, some day or the other.

The best course for one to learn a foreign language is to adopt a top down approach which means the learner looks at the big picture first before trying to figure out the details of the rules that were applied in framing of sentences. However, many language teachers would argue that there is no one-size-fits-all solution to leaning a foreign language. Some method may just work well for a learner while some others would find it not the best way to learn a language. When a particular method followed in a language class does not quite work for a learner, he/ she could even develop an aversion to continue in that class. This is because we all learn differently, there being some quick learners and some taking more time to get to grips with a new language.

Learning to converse in a new language beyond childhood can appear very difficult, but the learner can make it easier by not creating more barriers that will hinder progress of the learning curve. To make the learning process much smoother and enjoyable the most workable strategy for the learner would be to stop trying to translate ideas and thoughts from the native language to the target language. After obtaining a basic grasp of vocabulary in the target language, the learner should stop thinking in his/ her native language, trying to translate everything in mind, as this slows down progress and limits the real focus of learning.

One very effective way to learn a foreign language is to read and listen to dialogues in that language for a considerable period of time. This will enable the learner to understand how the language practically works without taking recourse to lengthy grammatical explanations and without memorising endless grammatical rules. Short explanations of the grammatical concepts may be provided after the learner gets to see the concepts actually used in conversations. Reading or listening to practical dialogues containing commonplace words and phrases comes very handy in learning a language. Learning the usages of these words and phrases in actual conversations is more practical because it helps the language-learner to learn the words in their exact context as opposed to memorising long vocabulary lists. Understanding correct usages of words and phrases in proper context helps in retention of vocabulary, in assimilation of the learned concepts and in accelerating conversational fluency in the language. This method of learning a language even prompts the learner to think in the target language as soon as possible. When the learner starts thinking in that language to the extent of saying line by line in the head, the learning process can be said to be nearing culmination.

Importance of learning English as a foreign language:  The English language is one of the most widely spoken and understood languages and is often reckoned as the most influential language in the world. It is one of the six official languages of the United Nations. Well over 67 countries have English as their official or native language, more than any other language in the world. It is one of the official languages of most of the countries of the British Commonwealth besides the USA. The international business community often uses English to communicate. While it is not easy to approximate the exact number of English language speakers in the world, some estimate puts it at around 1.5 billion people who speak English as a first or second language, one of the highest numbers for any language. One needs to be proficient in English language for pursuing education in countries like the UK and the USA. There are several globally recognised examinations for international students to measure their English language ability. 55% of all websites are in English. The bulk of electronic communication is in English; being able to read and write e-mails is of immense advantage.  Some of the world’s best films, TV shows and music are in English. Therefore, learning English will help one for a better understanding of other cultures.

Learning practical English: Learning English at a later age can be quite difficult. Therefore, following propositions the learners may find useful by not creating more barriers in their path of learning.

  1. Refrain from translating: It is advisable to stop thinking in one’s own language and trying to translate everything into English because it grossly slows down learning progress and limits the focus. It is better to proceed with the already acquired vocabulary for creating the expression in English.
  2. Getting over fears of mistakes: Fear about how others may react to one’s speech is a great barrier in the way of conversing. Mistakes are natural for learners and mistakes are a great learning experience to quickly get better.
  3. Avoiding negative thinking: Negative thoughts about perceived difficulties in conversing and harping about mistakes committed earlier hinder progress in learning. Positive thinking boosts confidence in conversation.
  4. Shaking off nervousness: Grabbing every opportunity to speak will go a long way in getting over nervousness.
  5. Refrain from taking it personally: It is desirable to avoid feeling too conscious about accent and pronunciation as it leads to apprehension about others not understanding one’s accent.
  6. Going beyond the classroom: It is imperative not to confine to English conversation within the classroom itself and to grab every opportunity to converse in English even outside in informal surroundings.
  7. Keeping up the effort: Not to give up till one is more confident in conversation should be the motto.
  8. Refraining from comparing oneself to more fluent English speakers: Not everyone has the same pace of learning since opportunities and surroundings vary from person to person.
  9. Not to be apologetic about not being perfect: Perfection comes with time with more and more practice.
  10. Avoiding outdated methods of learning: Not to adopt the Grammar Translation method for leaning that inhibits the process of learning, is the way forward.
  11. Not spending more time in studies: It is advisable to spend more time in application of principles of grammar or rules of language rather than studying about the rules and getting them by heart.
  12. Keeping up effort at reading more texts: Wider reading habits sharpen the knowledge about usages in composition of sentences and refine language skills. This also improves writing skills.

Communications skills help develop intelligence and knowledge which is the key to prosperity and growth in developing and advanced industrial societies, in an increasingly interdependent world. In this context acquiring capability to converse and communicate in widely spoken foreign languages like English becomes indispensable. One more thing is worth remembering in the matter of learning another language; one has to distinguish between nuances of spoken language and the written one.  Speaking the “written version” of the language will make one sound foreign and unnatural. On the other hand, if the speaker sounds natural when speaking, the audience will be honestly impressed and will feel closer to the speaker.



Shreya Bhattacharjee

Presently I am a student preparing for various exams of life. At this phase there is this one quote that I have been hearing from a very young age which I am sure even a lot many of my readers must have heard and that is “Discipline leads to success”.

Now this sometimes makes me wonder as to what discipline in itself means. According to my observation majority of the people tend to confuse discipline with good habits. In an attempt to be more elaborate, it is often considered that if a child greets his elders and respects them, then the child must be well disciplined. People need to realize that though there is a very thin line of difference between the two words “discipline” and “good habits” but the difference needs to be considered.

By the word “discipline” all I mean is a very high form of self awareness to realize what is good for me and what is not. This self awareness obviously comes from maturity and experience. Being disciplined is not being exactly spiritual but is much closer to it. Spirituality in this context can be associated as having attained a state of absolute inner peace which is not always attained in case of discipline. One needs to understand that getting up early in the morning is a good habit, but the motivation which pushes you out of your bed despite of your intense desire to fall asleep again is what is known as being disciplined. This might not always lead to a sense of inner peace (momentarily) as mentioned above. Becoming disciplined is a state of mind which can only be achieved by gradually training of our mind.

To be disciplined is being harsh on oneself which is a primary reason as to why it gets even tougher to maintain this decision as time passes by. But please do not consider the fact that discipline leads to depression. Initially the act of self control might be a bit depressing but as soon as you start watching yourself getting more successful than your previous lifestyle used to provide you automatically you start accepting discipline in a positive way.

One of the major motivations among the people to be disciplined is the thirst to achieve a complete state of perfection. People want to look equally good, equally beautiful, be equally well mannered and equally rich and successful. Perfection in itself is a state which requires infinitesimal improvements providing which is impossible for human beings. Nothing in this universe is absolutely perfect and nor are we. Expecting oneself to become absolutely perfect often leaves a person with dissatisfaction, confusion and grudges. With the help of discipline we can try to achieve a state a bit closer to perfection.

According to me one of the most basic and the sole reason behind indiscipline is lack of interest. Usually when we are assigned a task which we are not interested in but due to some reason we are forced to do it, we have a tendency to get distracted by the pettiest of the things around us. In such cases we get attracted to the highly luring, distractive bad habits which promise us with temporary, momentary pleasures instead of focusing on our long term, permanent pleasures.

I do personally feel that creating interest in a distasteful matter. It is rather difficult compared to being disciplined and using self control as your weapon against all distractions and boredoms. So here I have laid down a few effective points of everyday use which can help to get more disciplined.


This goes with the famous old saying “out of sight, out of mind”. For example if you are on a quest to achieve fitness, then keeping a bar of chocolate in your room would make life really, really difficult for you to achieve your fitness goals. Hence, the best ways to achieve your goals and continue with your act of self control is to keep your distractions as much as possible out of our sight.


By what is written above, I mean to highlight on a very common habit of people to procrastinate. People often have a tendency to give excuses like “I’m not ready to overtake this challenge now” or “this is not the right moment”. Sarcastically speaking I don’t think that for a student to get motivated and start working hard for his/ her upcoming exams, he/ she needs to wait for some astronomically predicted auspicious moment. I just want to make my readers get one thing clear that you are just one small decision away from a totally different life, a life that you dream of always and that decision is to act now. Be disciplined, have high self control, remove all your distractions and start working right now.


The act of self control and being disciplined overtime becomes too much punishing and also demoralizing. So to keep yourself motivated plan out an award for yourself. For example if you are on a fitness challenge and are maintaining a strict diet chart then you can give yourself your favorite ice cream treats on Sundays. This would not only keep you motivated but also give you the energy to work hard. It will help you to look forward to your next award. But I would also like to mention that you should keep a proper balance between your award and your working schedules. Your award however luring it may be, must not interfere under any circumstances with your working schedule.


Instituting a new way of thinking will not always go according to your plan. You will have ups and downs, fabulous success and flat out failures. The key is to keep moving forward. When you have a setback, acknowledge what caused it and move on. It is easy to get wrapped up in guilt, anger or frustrations but these emotions will not help you build self discipline. Instead, use the hiccups in your plans as learning experience for the future. Forgive yourself, and get back in the saddle. The longer you are off your game, the harder it is to keep going in a positive direction.

Being disciplined is difficult but believe me this is one sole habit which has given birth to all the successful legends known to your knowledge. The equation is simple, more disciplined you are more successful you become.

Indo-Pakistan: Conflict, Root Cause and Resolution

By: P. Lahiri

To correctly understand the nature of India-Pakistan conflict one has to look back to the 8th century when a petty Arab warlord and mercenary briefly conquered parts of Sindh and Multan. Thereafter, over thirteen centuries Mohammedan conquests of the Sub-continent through Afghanistan probably left a trail of the bloodiest saga of atrocities in world history,

The Two Nation Theory: The demise of the Islamic political order in the sub-continent in the 17th century upon consolidation of British rule, made its Muslim population remain communally surcharged. Some educated Muslim thinkers, not ideologically homogenous, tried to assume leadership of the community to revive the lost Islamic glory. Some of them sought to push Muslims back into medieval era of rule by Sharia (Islamic canonical law). Others like Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan and Sir Mohammad Iqbal (popularly known as Allama Iqbal) who were modernist reformers, stressed on modern education among the Muslims as a means to regain their political domination over Hindus. Sir Sayed founded the Aligarh Muslim University where the first idea of Pakistan germinated. Allama Iqbal, initially a great exponent of Indian nationalism advocating a strong united India, later narrowed his viewpoint to a communal interpretation of Muslim nationalism so much so that he first articulated the “Two Nation Theory” in his presidential address to Allahabad session of the Muslim League in 1930 sowing the seeds of Muslim separatism. Thus Iqbal became the political ideologue for Pakistan movement though it was one Mr. Rahmat Ali who coined the word ‘Pak-i-stan’, (Pak meaning purity and Stan meaning place) to propose a south-Asian federation for Muslims consisting of Punjab, NWFP, Sindh, Balochistan and Kashmir and raised the slogan “Now or Never” in 1933 to force the issue. Finally, it was left to Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the English educated, scotch drinking, bright lawyer to take the movement forward. Allama Iqbal explained in a letter to Jinnah his vision of a separate Muslim state. In Jinnah the Muslims found an elite face to match Nehru of the Indian National Congress. Iqbal the ideologue died in 1938 but after successfully converting Jinnah the politician from an ambassador of Hindu-Muslim unity to a communal Muslim leader. In justifying the two nation theory Jinnah emphasised that Muslims and Hindus were two different nations from every definition. They owned different religious philosophies, literatures and social customs, not ready to either intermarry or inter-dine together. Their civilisations are different deriving their inspiration from different sources of history, epics, heroes and episodes. For Jinnah, the Congress became “Gandhi Hindu Congress.” He accused Congress Ministries formed in different provinces after the elections under the 1935 Government of India Act, of interference with Muslim religious rites, undermining the economy of the Muslims and promoting Hindi at the expense of Urdu. Constructing an impossibility of coexistence of the Hindus and Muslims under a Congress regime, he warned such an eventuality would mean degradation of the dignity of the Muslims. This communal propaganda created a fear complex in Muslim minds about Hindu domination in British India and times thereafter, making them search for a vent for their political frustrations. This was the period when freedom movement under Indian National Congress (INC) was getting momentum. With the British engaged in the Second World War India pushed hard for independence with INC spearheading the Quit India movement and the Indian National Army of Subhas Chandra Bose launching the military campaign from East Asia.

But then, unnoticed by most, the entire sub-continent was pushed by a silent communal hate campaign onto a bed of gunpowder of communal violence making it a recipe for an impending disaster. Hindu-Muslim acrimony reached a flashpoint. On the fateful day of August 16th, 1946 labelled by Muslims as the “Direct Action Day,” a protest rally pre-planned by the Muslim League to exhibit the intensity of Muslim feelings, both to the British and the Congress, was turned into a communal conflagration claiming the lives of 4000 Hindus and Sikhs on the streets of Calcutta city (also known as ‘Great Calcutta Killings’). This was followed by a series of gruesome mass murders, rapes, abductions and forced conversions of Hindus to Muslim, looting and arson of Hindu properties, perpetrated by the Muslim community in October 1946, lasting over a week, in the district of Noakhali in the then Bengal province. The Bengali Hindus forcefully converted into Islam were compelled to write statements that they did so of their own volition. This method of ethnic cleansing resulted in mass migration of Hindus from districts of Muslim majority East Bengal (later christened East Pakistan) to West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. This was when Gandhi’s peace mission failed and Congress Party leadership and the British Viceroy Lord Louis Mountbatten had been compelled to acquiesce to the Partition of India into two dominions India and Pakistan.

Indo Pakistan Conflict:

  1. The fundamental basis of the India-Pakistan conflict lies in the Islamic doctrine which divides all of Humanity into two nations that transcend all man-made boundaries of countries. The doctrine says that all Muslims in the world are deemed to be part of one single nation calleddar-ul-islam (Nation of Islam), a nation where they can practise Islam as ruling sect. Contrarily, all non-Muslims belong to dar-ul-harb (Nation-of-War) which may also include Muslim majority lands where Muslims cannot rule as per Islamic laws based on Quranic principles. Hence is the need for strife or war to bring them to be ruled under Islamic laws. It is incumbent upon Pakistan to fight God’s holy war against India (dar-ul-harb).
  2. The India-Pakistan relation is a victim of an identity crisis for Pakistan. Educated Pakistanis are still trying to figure out where its history started. If assumed that it started in August 1947 there is very little to fall back upon for this geographical area that is Pakistan today. The ancient history of the region prior to this was largely of a Hindu-Buddhist civilisation that Pakistan must deny while constructing its different identity. This crisis of identity drives most Pakistanis to believe that history began from 712 AD when Mohammad bin Qasim, a petty Arab general of the Ummayad dynasty of Syria conquered Sindh. To construct an Arab lineage, an ordinary Pakistani had to endure the indoctrination that this Arab conqueror was the true founder of Pakistan conveniently ignoring the historical fact that the Ummayad Dynasty, that Bin Qasim belonged to, was the same dynasty which had in it the sworn enemy and murderer of ImamHussain the descendent of Mohammad (founder of Islam). Writings of most Nationalist Pakistani historians deliberately focussed on their glorious Mughal and Arab ancestry besides the two-nation theory. This explains why the character of Bin Qasim remained in oblivion during the medieval period only to be revived after twelve centuries as a national icon in response to communalism which emerged in 1924. Pakistan recognised Muhammad Bin Qasim as a conqueror hero because he converted Sindh to Islam. However, Charles Napier, the British Army commander who also invaded Sindh in 1843 and modernised it without converting it to Christianity has no other identity than that of an invader. Interestingly, the favourite fiction among all sub-continental Muslims more particularly those of Pakistan is to trace their lineage to a great general or a saint of Arab origin. Despite most Pakistanis being the progeny of the converts they loved to believe that their ancestors had arrived in Sindh with the army under Mohammad bin Qasim. Sadly enough though, their ancestors had converted to a faith professing human equality the Arabs in reality discriminated against the converts as “Hindis.”
  3. Pakistan refuses to accept the irrelevance proved twice of the two nation theory which said – Muslims of the subcontinent being a different nation could not be part of pluralistic India where they could live in harmony with Hindus. First time it was proved irrelevant, was when a numerically vast Muslim population decided to stay back in partitioned India. Later East Pakistan, the majority province that supported the creation of Pakistan based on the two-nation theory, separated itself in 1971, proving that the theory was less potent than the language spoken by the populace. The apologists of the theory, however, try to save face saying Bangladesh decided to remain an Islamic country after secession though the overriding reason for secession was persecution of the local population on the basis of their language and culture.
  4. Finally Pakistan calls the Kashmir dispute with India as the core unsolved issue. It fought three wars with India in 1948, 1965 and in 1999 to annex Kashmir from Indian control. Both India and Pakistan laid claim to the state of Jammu & Kashmir, then under a Hindu Ruler Hari Singh who remained indecisive about the future of the state. Pakistan pushed Pashtun tribal fighters backed by its regular forces in October 1947 into Kashmir and almost overran the Dogra forces of the Kashmiri Ruler, coming within miles of capturing the capital Srinagar. This is when the ruler turned for help from India which demanded accession to India as pre-condition for help. The ruler signed the Instrument of Accession and Indian Army managed to push back the invading Pakistan backed tribal forces. The lingering conflict made Prime Minister Nehru approach the United Nations which brokered a cease-fire leaving Pakistan in control of 37% of the erstwhile princely state. The UN resolution asks for holding a plebiscite in the state after Pakistan vacates its occupation for final resolution of the territorial dispute. Pakistan refuses to vacate its occupation and India lays claim to the entire state by virtue of the accession treaty. Pakistan lost both the wars it started in 1965 and 1999 to wrest Kashmir from India though its propaganda machinery misinforms its population that it won these wars.
  5. Both India and Pakistan became nuclear powers in May, 1998. India which holds overwhelming superiority in conventional military capability over Pakistan now faces nuclear bluff from Pakistan which blackmails India by refusing to declare a no-first-use doctrine, making South Asia the most dangerous nuclear flashpoint in the world.
  6. Since realising that it cannot wrest Kashmir from Indian control by military means Pakistan has embarked on a covert insurgency campaign since 1988 using Jihadi terrorist outfits nurtured in its own backyard. It has vowed to inflict a thousand cuts on India through a proxy war by relentlessly sending indoctrinated terrorist suicide attackers striking all over India resulting in civilian casualties to terrorise the population of India. The terrorist attacks on the Indian Parliament in 2001 and the daring attack at several places in Mumbai on 26 November 2008 are major acts of terrorism.

Root cause: Kashmir dispute is only the symptom and not the root cause of the conflict that exists between India and Pakistan. The root cause is the conflict between religious exclusivism and pluralism. Ever since the advent of Islam in the subcontinent in the 8th century, India has been the victim of this brand of religious exclusivism. The kind of exclusivism that exists in Islamic societies the world over irrespective of whether or not the followers of Islam are in majority or minority has kept the social strife alive. The exclusivism that exists in Islamic societies even today is similar to the one that existed in the European Christian societies of the 16th century, prior to the Protestant Reformation. In the past thirteen centuries that the Muslims have lived in India they have been in many ways thoroughly assimilated into the diversity of India. But the concept of dar-ul-harb has kept the conflict and war still existent. The two nation theory, the type of ethnic cleansing witnessed in Noakhali in 1947 and in Kashmir valley in 1990 are instances of this doctrine of Islam at play. So even if the Kashmir dispute is by any remote possibility settled, there is nothing to believe that India-Pakistan conflict will cease. If only Islam takes a leaf out the West’s experience of Christian Reformation movement, people of both the nations can think of coming out of this discord.


Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of Blog Management & Panel Members..

Methods of Motivating for Sales Staffs

By: Anamitra Roy

B.Com. (Hons.) [C.U.], Certified Financial Accountant (CMC), DFA (CMC), PGDBF (HSIS India), Certified Financial Accountant (GLOBSYN Skills & NSDC), GPBL (TASMAC & University of Wales), Associate Member – NIPM.

Motivating the sales department staffs remains one of the most difficult and crucial jobs in any business. It is the sales department who will acquire the business and make the organization run by ensuring a smooth flow of money. In the absence of a motivated sales department there will be shortage of business, leading to a shortage of funds. That is bound to hamper the smooth operations in relation to the day to day activities as well as the future long term plans of the organization. So they (the employees in the sales department) will have to be motivated properly. It is very often said in modern day human resource management that motivated people run faster than jets. When you have a bunch of motivated sales staffs, they not only help you to earn business volumes, but it also has to be remembered that motivated people are happy people. Thus, motivated sales staffs are a very important and effective source of advertisement.

Generally speaking, methods of motivation may vary from man to man. But still there are some generalized methods followed by talent development departments around the world. A discussion on some of these methods is as follows:

  • Proper Recognition:

Recognition is a very important tool for motivation. In the absence of recognition employees become sluggish performers and develop frustration against the management of the organization. During recognition of the contributions of sales staffs in the organization, they are told/ reminded about their importance in the organization. Recognition sort of highlights/ prominent the job role played by sales staffs.

  • A Proper Plan of Incentives:

Incentives are a great source of motivation. However, it also has to be mentioned here that there are arguments against motivating sales staffs or for that matter any staff through financial rewards. But there are lots of organizations in favor of it. NIIT, one of the Indian IT training giants has financial reward schemes for the employees of its franchisee departments. In NIIT when an employee successfully opens a franchisee training centre, 17% of the franchisee registration fees is paid to the employee as a financial reward. Psychologists and human resource development experts are mostly against usage of financial rewards as tolls of motivation because that creates severe completion, sometimes unhealthy completion and jealousy among employees which instead of motivating them, may ruin the work environment in the organization.

  • Suggestions from the Sales Staffs:

The staffs from the sales department usually interact most with the prospective as well as the existing consumers and customers. So they know the market demands better than anybody else (read: staffs from other departments in the organization). Hence, while devising new products, their opinion about the market demands will have to be given utmost importance. If the R & D department makes the new products according to the suggestions given to them by the staffs of the sales department then the sales department staffs will have products that have the demand in markets. Thus they will be able to sell these newly launched products in a much easier way. This method of motivating of sales staffs has been developed from an old school of marketing management thinkers. These thinkers think that in order to ensure sales of products one should not try to match the demands with the existing products. Instead products will have to be developed according to the needs of customers and consumers.

  • The Philosophy of Education:

Education in India is viewed as God … as a means of attaining the greater heights of life and achieving purity. In this country Goddess Saraswati is worshipped as the Goddess of education. Sales as a career and profession offer one of the most exciting and enriching fields. Sales experience can be one of the greatest educators.

In order to avoid monotony of work, sales staffs can be told about the great experience that they are gathering, about the usefulness of this experience and price of this experience. In order to keep the sales staffs motivated, they may be told about the great education that they are receiving about human characters, markets, economic systems, consumer behavior, psychology etc. when they are interacting with customers, traveling from one place to another and trying to convince the hardest of the customers.

  • Counseling:

In a sales job there is always a pressure of target that is usually measurable in terms of money. At times such a target can be extremely steep. Chasing such targets can be stressful. It is believed by many counselors that stress is one of the commonest factors that force many people to come out of a sales job. On not achieving the targets the staffs of the sales departments may get frustrated and slowdown in their pace of achieving the targets. This can be avoided by periodical counseling of the sales departmental staffs through trained counselors and stress management experts.

Thus above have been stated some ways by which the staffs of the sales department can be kept motivated. However, in this context it will have to be remembered that these methods may not be equally responsible for motivating the staffs of the sales departments always.

Ultimately what is needed to motivate the staffs of the sales department is a harmonious blend of all the motivation methods written above. The degree and the intensity may vary from time to time and from circumstances to circumstances.


Merit or Seniority – better criterion for promotion

By: P. Lahiri

One of the most disconcerting decisions that human resource managers have been facing in deciding who to promote from within an organisation for bestowing higher responsibilities; whether they are serving senior and experienced employees of the organisation or those bright individuals who have proved their worth by their performance. Unarguably therefore, the most difficult part of the promotion policy that can be implemented by any organisation, is to select the criteria for conferring higher responsibilities to an existing employee, namely seniority or ability. There is no clear cut answer to this riddle as there are some seemingly strong arguments on both sides of this conundrum. Viewed simply, an effective promotion policy focuses on advancing employees based on their skills and performance, while shunning favouritism. It is important to determine the minimum criteria for advancement and make employees well aware of the standards they must meet to earn promotions. Skill and performance of employees can only be evaluated over a minimum time span which each employee is required to spend in the organisation. So the promotion policy should make it clear to employees about the definite time every employee need to spend in an organisation before he/ she can be considered for promotion. Having spoken about the importance of skill and performance of an employee and the minimum period over which these attributes are to be evaluated, the focus now shifts to another equally important benchmark for advancement which is on-the-job experience earned. More time spent within the organisation gives an insight to any employee about the nature of job and the best way to perform it. An experienced employee is an asset for any organisation, as much time and resources have already been invested in such individual. Many human resource professionals also believe, seniority adds value to an employee in terms of competence due to greater exposure. Accordingly, it adds relevance to provide the senior people in an organisation with opportunities for career advancement along with rewards or benefits that come with higher age.

 Need for a clear promotion policy:

The need to lay down a clear and unambiguous promotion policy is of immense importance. An unclear promotion policy can lead to conflicts and high turnover rates among employees who do not understand why some co-workers received precedence in promotion over them. Additionally, vague promotion procedures may also appear discriminatory. To avoid these ambiguities, the need for employers to adopt a transparent promotion policy and to apply the policy’s standards to all the employees seeking advancement, cannot be overstated.

 Seniority vs. Performance as criteria for promotion:

Before proceeding to decide on the desirability of adopting one criterion over the other it is vital to rightly interpret the terms, “Seniority” and “Performance.”

Seniority means the tenure of an employee in an organization. Seniority is something which comes with experience in some kind of work or in a particular position in the company. Such experience may also sometimes mean cumulative experience in various kinds/ levels of jobs in the company. It also signifies loyalty to the company and is measured by the seniority clock that runs from the moment the employee reports to work until the employee quits or is fired.

Performance is a distinction that is measurable. It reflects in the working behaviour of the employee. It is measured in terms of an employee’s involvement in the development of the company. It distinguishes hard work, quantum of work and also the quality of work delivered by an employee who contributes to the company’s growth in the best possible manner.

The proponents of seniority and those of performance as basis for advancement of employees, have very strong arguments in favour of their propositions. Objectively speaking, there are benefits/ advantages and detriments/ disadvantages in both the systems. Following lines enumerate advantages and disadvantages of both the systems:

Advantages of “Seniority” based promotions:

  1. Senior employees of an organization have better understanding of the organisational culture, vision and goals.
  2. Senior employees have on their side the advantage of more experience which is an invaluable asset for assuming higher responsibilities.
  3. Experienced employees make better team leaders for executing jobs where collective effort is needed.
  4. The measurement of seniority is simple, exact and also objective leaving no room for favouritism, nepotism, discrimination and retaliation.
  5. It protects and boosts an employee’s morale which in turn helps to increase productivity of the employee.
  6. It recognises and rewards loyalty to the organisation.
  7. It reduces labour turnover.
  8. It promotes industrial peace by making the workplace more harmonious especially in more unionised organisations.
  9. Seniority based promotions may help in attaining high levels of competence due to longer work exposure.

Disadvantages of “Seniority” based promotions:

  1. A more senior employee does not necessarily mean a more productive employee.
  2. Senior employees with long years at their back tend to be less enthusiastic and sometimes work listlessly which may prove detrimental to reaching goals of the company.
  3. Senior employees tend to display inertia to adapt to changes and prefer to stick to long-standing procedures.
  4. Promotion driven by seniority is a reward system that is based on entitlement rather than self improvement through acquisition of newer skills and training.
  5. Seniority based advancements are less likely to promote excellence within an organisation as employees may feel that promotions are guaranteed after completion of a certain period of time within the company. Such practice may promote a culture of mediocrity in the organisation.
  6. Holding onto senior employees rewarding them with higher positions with enhanced pay may prove costlier as talented younger employees can be obtained by offering a lesser compensation package.
  7. Seniority driven advancement may stifle motivation and fuel resentment among talented individuals with lesser experience.

Advantages of “Merit” based promotions:

  1. Merit based promotions by recognising high-performers nurtures a culture of healthy competition and productivity.
  2. Since actual performance, efficiency and talents are rewarded, this system of promotion encourages the employees to enhance their knowledge in maintaining a high level of productivity.
  3. It is very effective in putting the most productive, competent and talented person for specialised nature of jobs.
  4. Talent based promotion incentivises even new employees to improve their performance since promotion is made on the basis of competence, capability and efficiency.
  5. Performance driven promotion policy is effective in creating a sense of accountability among employees.
  6. It helps a HR manager to face the challenge of retention of talent, as high performers, driven by their urge to accelerate the professional goals, are always inclined to seek better opportunities elsewhere.
  7. It helps an employee to plan his own career trajectory within the organisation.


Disadvantages of “Merit” based promotions:

  1. The inevitable criticism of merit based promotions is that it may result in favouritism, nepotism, discrimination and victimisation by the management.
  2. The unsatisfied senior employees if superseded may resort to agitations and other activities emanating from resentments, impairing industrial peace and harmony.
  3. An essential pre-requisite of performance based promotions is a proper method of performance appraisal or merit rating which is not easy to make it foolproof.
  4. Lack of much experience may not make an employee effective when promoted into a position of leadership. Such shortcomings may affect performance of the group he/ she leads.


Neither seniority nor merit can be accepted as a sole basis for promotion. Based only on seniority, a promotion system will offer less incentive to learn and improve. The employees will only bide their time to wait for their turn to secure promotion. And summarily ignoring seniority in deciding on promotion will not recognise the inherent importance of experience of tenured employees. A well formulated promotion policy should be the one that can be executed properly whenever any vacancy arises. A promotion system based on merit needs to be fully structured to avoid the element of conjecture in it.  Various jobs within the organisation should be well defined and rated and employees should be made aware of ratings. A sound promotion policy should be made on the combined basis of merit and seniority. Both seniority and merit should be given due weightage in a robust promotion policy. When ability is substantially equal, seniority should be taken into account. In specialised posts, talent, skill and ability should get precedence over seniority. For other posts a two track promotion system may be formulated whereby in the normal track, some posts may be filled on the basis of seniority only, provided the senior employee meets a minimum benchmark of performance set by the company. On the other hand, in the other track of elevation which can be named a fast track, an employee who has put in a minimum qualifying period of service can be evaluated with a slightly more demanding yardstick of performance to secure promotion. A promotion policy should not be static and needs to be reviewed at definite intervals so that it fulfils the growth of an organisation as well as offers its employees scope for their professional advancement.




A study of educational interest of Xth Class Students in relation to gender and location

By: Gagandeep Tiwana

Assistant Professor Pine Grove College Of Education, Bassi Pathanan, Punjab, India.


The purpose of present study is to look into educational interest patterns of xth class students across gender and locale. For this purpose t-test was applied to find out significance of mean difference in different interest areas namely (agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities, science, technology) for male and females, rural and urban groups.


Education is a continuous process in which the teacher guides the progress of each pupil at every stage after ascertaining the rate, direction & extent of previous development. Having accepted the educational principle that maximum growth of each pupil is to be secured according to his individual needs and capacities; Periodic measures of each child’s abilities, previous attainments and speed become necessary. Only when his progress and potential is known and he can be guided in advancing along the road to desired educational objectives. New ideas and new ways of life are sought through education without education the individual would be un-qualified for group life by (Goeting). Concept of education is still in a process of evolution and this process never come to be static. It is rightly said that education deals with ever growing in man in an ever growing society. The function of education is conceived to be the adjustment of man to his environment which contemplates mans adaptation to and the reconstruction of his environment to the end  (Nelson). ‘An interest may be defined as a tendency to make consistent choices in a certain direction without external pressure and in the face of alternatives, i.e. it represents a tendency to select certain activities or things in preference to certain others’.

           “Interest is that excitement of feeling which gives rise to attention.” This mental excitement may be intellectual or sympathetic and emotional, or merely personal, as an interest in philosophical research, in human suffering in money getting.

         It is an expression of likes and dislikes, our attractions and aversions. A phenomenon of acceptance or rejection is involved in the issue of likes and dislikes. An individual chooses the most acceptable alternative out of the many, going after preferred objectives of activities and consequently derives satisfaction, success and happiness out of the activities selected. The identification and assessment of interests in the case of an individual serves a purpose which can be served by no other means.

Kinds of Interest

Interests are natural, acquired, intrinsic or extrinsic.

       Natural interests are interests arising from natural tendencies like instincts and emotions.Acquired interests are due to acquired dispositions like sentiments, habits, character, ideals and tastes. Intrinsic interest is the deep-rooted interest. Extrinsic interest is motivated by some external forces.

Conflicting Interests

          Interests at a particular time vary. There are immediate interests and permanent interests. There are interests of opposite nature that some time conflict with each other. Even the young pupil may face dilemma of conflicting interests when he is in completing in home-task and is also invited by his playmates to play. A child may have some selected interests, but some children have a number of varied interests and what is needed here is maintaining a proper balance of interests. Immediate interest may be followed but not to the detriment of permanent interests. Therefore, educational guidance should be provided to the child from the very early stage when the child enters school and continues even after a stable choice has been made.

           Interest means to make a difference. “It describes why the organisms tend to favour some situation and thus comes to react to them in a very selective manner.’ Interests and attention are very closely related. Interests are one of the key factors among the non-intellectual factors. Therefore the identification and measurement of interests, is very essential for the educational and vocational guidance. The educational interest play very significant role in educational guidance. Educational guidance is the process of helping a student to develop, to accept, to integrate adequate picture of himself and a clear undertaking of his problems and of his role in the world of education (School and college), with satisfaction to himself and benefit to school and society. Therefore ‘educational-guidance’ is needed at all stages of education (from nursery to college).


  • To study the educational interest of Secondary School students in relation to gender.
  • To study the educational interest of Secondary School students in relation to location.


  • There is no significant difference in educational interest among boys and girls.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest among rural and urban students.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest of male students belonging to rural and urban areas.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest of female students belonging to rural and urban areas.


For the present study the investigator adopted the descriptive method for collection of data because this method was considered to be more suitable for the present problem. A sample of 200 students, both boys (rural 50 and Urban 50) and girls (rural 50 and urban 50) of Xth class was drawn from eight schools, situated in Fatehgarh Sahib District.The tool used were Educational Interest Record (EIR) prepared by Dr. S.P. Kulsherstha (2005) was used to conduct the present study

       EIR was first developed in the year 1965 which was thoroughly revised in 1970, 1975 and 1978 by the author. This record has been consistently in use in various research studies, research projects and also proved easy and beneficial for the testing students

       This record has been successfully used for more than a decade and found suitable at delta and higher secondary level. Many research workers later found it also very important and useful for college students and young adults out of schools and colleges.

 Areas of Educational Interest Record (EIR)

The present record contains 98 educational subjects/activities belonging to seven different educational interest areas. They are-

  • Agriculture (AG)
  • Commerce (Co)
  • Fine Arts (FA)
  • Home Science (HS)
  • Humanities (HU)
  • Science (SC)
  • Technology (TE)

Thus, each of these educational areas (based on school faculties system) has fourteen subjects on the record, seven on horizontal and seven on vertical side.

Statistical Techniques

In order to accomplish the objective of the present study, Mean, Standard deviation, t-test was used.

Results and Discussion

The results have been discussed under the following headings:

  1. Gender Differences in different Educational Interest Areas.
  2. Rural and Urban Differenes in different Eduational Interest areas.
  3. Gender differences in Educational Interest of rural and urban

Gender Differences in Different Educational Interest Areas

The means and SD’s of male and female Xth class students in different educational interest areas are given in table 1.  The t-values, testing significance of mean differences are also shown in table 1.

TABLE 1  Mean’s and SD’s of Secondary School Students across Gender Groups along with t-value

  Male (N = 100) Female (N = 100) t-value
Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 5.56 3.16 3.84 2.59 3.01**
Commerce 5.88 2.55 3.86 2.04 4.39**
Fine Arts 4.90 2.23 7.68 3.92 4.41**
Home Science 5.00 2.33 8.80 3.63 6.33**
Humanities 6.64 2.39 6.24 2.12 0.90
Science 4.98 2.84 4.60 2.60 0.70
Technology 6.56 2.75 4.14 2.42 4.74**

** p < .01.

The table 1 shows that Xth class males have a mean score of 5.56, 5.88, 4.90, 5.00 and 6.56 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology respectively. The respective mean score’s for Xth class Girl’s students came out to be 3.84, 3.86, 7.68, 8.80 and 4.14.

The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology came out to be 3.01, 4.39, 4.41, 6.33 and 4.74. All the t-values are significant.

In case of interest areas of humanities and science the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male’s and female turned out to be 0.90 and 0.70 respectively and are not significant even at .05 level. Hence the hypothesis “there is no difference in educational interest of secondary school male and female students” is rejected. It may be concluded that:

  • Xth class male students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to  Xth  class female students.
  • The Xth class female students have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts, home science as compared to Xth  class male students.

Rural and Urban differences in educational interest AREAS:

The means and SD’s of rural and urban students in different educational areas along with t-values are given in table 2.

TABLE 2  Mean’s and SD’s of Secondary School Students across Urban and Rural Groups along with t-value

  Urban (N = 100) Rural (N = 100) t-value
Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 6.30 3.01 3.10 2.73 5.63**
Commerce 6.32 1.93 3.42 2.67 6.30**
Fine Arts 6.58 4.2 6.00 1.84 0.87
Home Science 6.70 3.64 7.10 2.32 0.65
Humanities 6.56 2.02 6.32 2.49 0.53
Science 5.70 2.59 3.88 2.86 3.37**
Technology 6.04 2.16 4.66 3.01 2.65**

** p <** p < .01.

The table 2 shows that Xth class urban students have a mean score of 6.30, 6.32, 5.70, and 6.04 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, science, and technology respectively.

The respective mean score’s for Xth class rural students came out to be 3.10, 3.42, 3.88 and 4.66. The t-value’s testing the significance of mean difference in interest areas of agriculture, commerce, science, and technology came out to be 5.63, 6.30, 3.37 and 2.65. All the t-values are significant.

In case of interest areas of fine arts, home science and humanities, the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between urban and rural students turned out to be 0.87, 0.65 and 0.53 respectively and these are not significant even at .05 level. Hence the hypothesis “there is no significant difference in educational interest of rural and urban senior secondary students is rejected”. It may be concluded that Xth class urban students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce, science and technology as compared to  Xth class students of rural groups.

The findings are in contrary to the findings of Saraswat (1988) that male and females, rural-urban students, science art students significantly differed in their academic achievement, occupational aspiration and achievement–motivation.

Gender Difference in Educational Interest of Rural and Urban students

Urban Group

The means and SDs of male and female students in urban group in different educational areas along with t-values are given in table 3.


Mean’s and SD’s of Urban and Rural students in Gender Differences in Different Educational Areas along with t-values













Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 6.8 3.46 5.80 2.57 1.64 4.32 2.86 1.88 2.61 4.44**
Commerce 7.24 2.00 5.40 1.86 4.72** 4.52 3.11 2.32 2.23 4.24**
Fine Arts 5.48 2.65 7.68 5.99 2.36* 4.32 1.82 7.68 1.86 9.08*
Home Science 4.92 2.49 8.48 4.80 4.68* 5.08 2.18 9.12 2.47 8.78**
Humanities 7.04 2.27 6.08 1.78 2.34* 6.24 2.52 6.40 2.46 0.33
Science 6.20 2.75 5.2 2.43 1.96 3.76 2.94 4.00 2.78 0.42
Technology 7.24 2.15 4.84 2.18 5.58** 5.88 3.36 3.44 2.66 6.10**

* p < .05      ** p <.01

       The table 3 show’s that in urban and rural students, urban students (male and female) male students have a mean score of 7.24, 5.48, 4.92, 7.04 and 7.24 in the interest areas of commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities and technology respectively.The respective mean scores for Xth class female students came out to be 5.40, 7.68, 8.48, 6.08 and 4.84.
The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities and technology came out to be 4.72, 2.36, 4.68, 2.34 and 5.58.  As may be seen from table 3 that, (i) Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce, humanities and technology as compared to Female students of urban group; and (ii) female students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of Urban Group.

In case of interest areas of agriculture and science, the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male and female students of urban group students turned out to be 1.64 and 1.94 respectively and these are not significant even at .05 level.

Rural Group

  The table 3 shows that in urban and rural students, rural students (male and female) male students have a mean score of 4.32, 4.52, 4.32, 5.08 and 5.88 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology respectively. The respective mean scores for female students came out to be 1.88, 2.32, 7.68, 9.12 and 3.44.

The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology came out to be 4.44, 4.24, 9.08, 8.78 and 6.10. It may be observed that: (i) Male students of rural group have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to female students of rural groups; and (ii) female students of rural group have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of rural group.

In case of interest areas of humanities and science the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male and female students of rural group students turned out to 0.33 and 0.42 respectively and this are not significant even at 0.5 level.

Hence the hypothesis “there is no significant difference in educational interest of male and female students belonging to rural and urban groups” is rejected. It may be concluded that:

  • Male students of urban and rural students group have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce, technology as compared to female students of urban and rural group.
  • Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in humanities as compared to female students of urban group.
  • Female students of rural and urban groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of rural and urban groups.

The similar trend is observed in the study of Gautam (1988) that (1) A significant correlation was noted in the preference orders of urban and rural students of class VIII in both educational and vocational interest areas, which means that their interest preferences were similar (ii) significant differences in most of the interest areas were found between the scores of rural and urban males. While in case of female’s significant differences could be noticed only in few interest areas.

 Major Findings

  • The Xth class male students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to Xth class female students.
  • The Xth class female students have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts, home science as compared to Xth class male students.
  • The Xth class urban students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce, science and technology as compared to Xth class rural students.
  • Male students of urban and rural groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce and technology as compared to female students of urban and rural group.
  • Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in humanities as compared to female students of urban group.
  • Female student of rural and urban groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in arts and home science as compared to male students of rural and urban group.


Modern education requires that each student must be given the opportunity to advance as fast as he could or as slowly as he must. it is also mentioned earlier that to produce on aware citizenry, the process of imparting educational interest  needs attention at all levels but at school level it needs much more emphasis because students of today are the citizens of tomorrow and hence would be playing a critical role in the development of the nation. Proper guidance should be given to the child, so that they can choose Educational subjects according to their abilities, interest, capacities, potentials etc.


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Buddhism and Jainism


By: Dr. Deepali Singla

Principal Pine grove College Of Education, Bassi Pathanan 



When we compare the vast amount of similarities between the Buddha and Mahavira and Buddhism and Jainism, it is possible that the differences were even less in early Buddhism. A more drastic change may have occurred when Buddhism placed less emphasis on ahimsa as can be seen in Buddhist writings that tend to justify and allow meat eating, for example. It is possible that the early Buddhists were more insistent on vegetarianism as additionally evidenced by King Ashoka who wanted to gradually phase out the killing of animals for food. King Ashoka ruled and lived before the Pali Canon was put to writing.  There are marked differences in the definitions of kamma and nibbana (karma and nirvana) and the Buddha was practicing asceticism prior to enlightenment. In light of these facts it is possible that both Mahavira and Buddha were practicing some form of Jainism/Shramana/asceticism and the Buddha got it right (and was the actual new enlightened one to teach the masses, not Mahavira) in regard to nibbana and kamma but both were insistent on ahimsa and many other teachings.


Buddhism is centered upon the life and teachings of Gautama Buddha, whereas Jainism is centered on the life and teachings of Mahavira. Buddhism is a polytheistic religion and it’s main goal is to gain enlightenment. Jainism is also a polytheistic religion and it’s goals are based on non-violence and liberation the soul. Mahāvīra and Buddha were contemporaries, there are no mentions of the two teachers meeting, but there are mentions of Mahavira’s disciples questioning Buddha in various Suttas. The Buddhists have always maintained that by the time Buddha and Mahavira were alive, Jainism was already an entrenched faith and culture in the region. Buddhist scriptures record philosophical dialogues between the wandering seeker Siddarttha Gotama (Buddha) and Udaka Ramaputta, and the first of several teachers that young Siddattha Gotama studied with before his enlightenment.

Buddhist scriptures attest that some of the first Buddhists were in fact Jains (Nirgranthas as they were then called, meaning “the unbonded ones”) who “converted”, but were encouraged by Buddha to maintain their Jain identity and practices such as giving alms to Jain monks and nuns. Buddhists recorded that Mahavira preached the “fourfold restraint” of the Nirgrantha tradition, a clear reference to the teachings of Mahavira’s predecessor Lord Parshva (877-777 BCE), traditionally the 23rd Tirthankara of Jainism; who propounded the four vows of Ahinsa (Ahimsa), Satya (truth), Aparigraha (non-possessiveness), and Asteya (non-stealing), which may have been the template for the Five Precepts of Buddhism. Additionally, the Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya scripture quotes the independent philosopher Purana Kashyapa (the sixth century BCE founder of a now extinct order) as listing the Nirgranthas as one of the six major classifications of humanity.

Similarities and differences

The common terms in Buddhism and Jainism:

  • Shramana
  • Nibbana (Sanskrit: Nirvana): (the definition is different in the two traditions)
  • Arahant: the term is used somewhat similarly.
  • Dhamma (Sanskrit: Dharma)
  • Jina
  • Acharya (chief of the orders)
  • Sutta (Sanskrit: Sutra) (scriptures)
  • Indra/Shamkra (chief of the gods)

The terms that are used with different meanings:

  • Pudgala
  • Siddha

Common symbols:

  • Pratima, foot prints
  • Stupa
  • The dharma-chakra
  • The swastika
  • The trirathna
  • The ashta-mangalas
  • Minor devas


Vegetarianism is required for both monks and laity in Jainism. In Buddhism, the monks in China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam are vegetarian; however strict vegetarianism is not required. By monastic tradition, a monk should eat whatever is placed in his bowl when begging food. The exceptions to not eat given meat were if the monk knew an animal was killed especially for him or he heard the animal being killed. See: Threefold rule

But for lay people it is not so clear and many lay Buddhists have chosen vegetarianism to better practice the Dhamma and keep the precepts. In general, the precept against killing living beings in Buddhism centers around intent, whereas, the Jains take it further and avoid all possible killing. Some Jains wear masks around the mouth, thinking it will prevent the killing of microorganisms. They also refrain from eating animal products and root vegetables, thereby not even killing the plant, as they trim the greens off the root plant. Seen in this way, the Buddhists who practice vegetarianism (animal products, such as eggs, honey, dairy, root vegetables acceptable to eat) are not that extreme, when compared to the Jain diet.

A further look at the similarities

Much has been made of the similarities between Buddha and Jesus in their lives and teachings, although there are some marked differences. The similarities between Buddhism and Jainism and Buddha and Mahavira are much more pronounced.

No creator god

  • There is no creator god in Jainism.
  • There is no creator god in Buddhism.

No creation myth

  • There is no creation myth in Jainism, a first beginning is not knowable.
  • There is no creation myth in Buddhism, a first beginning is not knowable.

Previous founders

  • Mahavira was not the founder, but rather the re-discoverer of the truth according to Jainism.
  • Buddha was not the founder, but rather the re-discoverer of the truth according to Buddhism.

24 prior teachers

  • According to Jainism there are 24 known tirthankaras who discovered the truth after a time when the teachings were lost.
  • According to Buddhism (Buddhavamsa) there were 24 previous Buddhas who discovered the truth (plus 3 in prehistoric times and Gotama-Buddha for a total of 28.

Warrior caste

  • Mahavira was born into the ksatriya caste (warrior caste).
  • Buddha was born into the ksatriya caste (warrior caste).


  • Mahavira was born to a ksatriyan chief named Siddhatha.
  • Buddha was to a ksatriyan chief and Buddha’s birth name was Siddhatha.


  • Mahavira married a woman named Yasoda.
  • Buddha married a woman named Yasoda.

One child

  • Mahavira had one child (a daughter).
  • Buddha had one child (a son).

Height of 6 feet

  • It is reported that Mahavira was 6 feet tall (1.83m)
  • It is reported that Buddha was 6 feet tall (1.83m)

Enlightenment under a tree

  • Mahavira renounced the world at age 20 attained enlightenment under a tree at 28 and lived to 72 years.
  • Buddha renounced the world at age 29 attained enlightenment under a tree at 35 and lived to 80 years.


  • Mahavira practiced asceticism toward enlightenment.
  • Buddha practiced asceticism toward / prior to enlightenment.

Dharma Shramana

  • Jainism is in the Dharma category of religions that practice Shramana, which includes forms of renunciation and mental purification.
  • Buddhism is in the Dharma category of religions that practice Shramana, which includes forms of renunciation and mental purification.


  • The color yellow is associated with Mahavira
  • The color yellow is associated with Buddha (he wore yellow robes) and yellow is a common color in Buddhist temples

Rejection of caste

  • Jainism rejects caste distinctions based on birth.
  • Buddhism rejects caste distinctions based on birth.

5 precepts

  • There are 5 great vows or precepts in Jainism.
  • There are 5 primary precepts in Buddhism.

First Precept of Ahimsa

  • The first precept in Jainism is Ahimsa (non-violence), which extends to all living beings.
  • The first precept in Buddhism is to not kill, which extends to all living beings.

Second precept

  • A second precept in Jainism is Satya (truthfulness).
  • A second precept in Buddhism is truthfulness.

Third precept

  • A third precept in Jainism is Asteya (not stealing).
  • A third precept in Buddhism is not stealing.

Fourth precept

  • A fourth precept in Jainism is Brahmacharya (celibacy for monks and nuns no sexual misconduct for lay people).
  • A fourth precept in Buddhism is to refrain from sexual misconduct (celibacy for monks and nuns).

Fifth precept

  • A fifth precept in Jainism in is Aparigraha non-materialism, non-attachment to material things.
  • A fifth precept in Buddhism is refrain from intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness. (The only precept of the 5 which is somewhat different, but not completely different since the Buddhist version is also calling for no attachment.)

Fourfold assembly

  • Mahavira instituted a fourfold assembly of monks, nuns, lay men, and lay women.
  • Buddha instituted a fourfold assembly of monks, nuns, lay men, and lay women.

Nirvana (Nibbana)

  • Jainism teaches that one must undergo pure conduct, practice meditation and attain enlightenment, release from rebirth.
  • Buddhism teaches that one must undergo pure conduct, practice meditation and attain enlightenment, release from rebirth.

The other shore

  • In Jainism the tirthankaras are known as ford-makers, who have crossed the river of samsara and rebirth.
  • In Buddhism the simile of crossing the ocean to the other shore is frequently used to describe enlightenment, nibbana.

Middle Way

The Buddha is of course famous for his Middle Way, breaking away from the ascetics by bathing and taking some food prior to enlightenment. But how much of a break-away from asceticism was it? By today’s standards the practice of the Buddha would most certainly be still considered asceticism. As he sat for enlightenment the Buddha remarked:

Though my skin, my nerves and my bones shall waste away and my life blood go dry, I will not leave this seat until I have attained the highest wisdom, called supreme enlightenment, that leads to everlasting happiness.” (Majjhima Nikaya 70)

Such was the Buddha’s persistence and determination to attain enlightenment. The Buddha took food for nourishment and strength from Sujata and then according to some traditions or legends sat in meditation for several days before attaining enlightenment. Although not in the Suttas, in the Commentaries there is the report that the Buddha ate this meal and did not eat for 49 days (J.i.68f.; DhA.i.71), which would be considered asceticism at least by today’s standards if not by the ascetic standard of ancient India. Even if it was a large meal, this 49 days is still a considerable amount of time to fast between the meal and enlightenment.

Buddhist teachings list 13 ascetic practices conducive for jhanas as well as other teachings praising certain ascetic practices.

I do not say householder, that all asceticism should be practiced; nor do I say of all asceticism that it should not be practiced” (Anguttara Nikaya 10.94).

The person who wears a robe made of rags, who is lean, with veins showing all over the body, and who meditates alone in the forest him do I call a holy man” (Dhammapada 395).


In Jainism plants are considered to have life force and spirit. In later Buddhist teachings a clear line was drawn where the Buddhist cosmology included humans, animals, devas and other celestial beings, but not plants. However, there is some indication that this may have been a later development and that the early Buddhists regarded plants as somewhat a borderline case between sentient and insentient. The Buddhist Vinaya prohibits monks and nuns from doing any kind of violence against plants (Pac.10, 11). According to both Jainism and Buddhism, plants are one-facultied (kaayindriya, jiivitindriya); a form of rudimentary life. There is scientific research that is showing some possible evidence of neurobiology and possible sentience in plants.

Which came first?

Jainism is clearly older than Buddhism if we just go by the archeological and historical records. Both religions claim that their founders, Mahavira and Buddha rediscovered the teachings after they had died out from a previous era. The Buddhist scriptures clearly refer to Jainism as if it is an already entrenched religion. And there is reference made to a previous Jain teacher born at least a couple of centuries before Buddha. Both religions maintained an oral tradition and did not have their teachings put to writing for hundreds of years. The Buddhist Tipitaka was put to writing around 100 BCE. However, the Jain sutras did not get put to writing until the 6th century CE (Mahesh Jain, 2004) which is about 600 years after the Buddhist scriptures. The scriptures also have numerous parallels, including some of the same stories and same formats. There is even a numerical section of the Jain sutras similar to the numerical lists found in the Buddhist Anguttara Nikaya. Considering this, it can be argued that the Jain writers copied some material or at least the format off the Buddhist scriptures.


In the Buddhist scriptures there are references to the Buddha or one of his disciples meeting and debating with Jains. In virtually every instance the Buddha or one of his disciples wins the debate and the Jain converts to Buddhism. A less than favorable light is also portrayed to the founder of Jainism, Mahavira. When we compare the vast amount of similarities between the Buddha and Mahavira and Buddhism and Jainism, it is possible that the differences were even less in early Buddhism. A more drastic change may have occurred when Buddhism placed less emphasis on ahimsa as can be seen in Buddhist writings that tend to justify and allow meat eating, for example. It is possible that the early Buddhists were more insistent on vegetarianism as additionally evidenced by King Ashoka who wanted to gradually phase out the killing of animals for food. King Ashoka ruled and lived before the Pali Canon was put to writing. There are marked differences in the definitions of kamma and nibbana (karma and nirvana) and the Buddha was practicing asceticism prior to enlightenment. In light of these facts it is possible that both Mahavira and Buddha were practicing some form of Jainism/Shramana/asceticism and the Buddha got it right (and was the actual new enlightened one to teach the masses, not Mahavira) in regard to nibbana and kamma but both were insistent on ahimsa and many other teachings.