The Importance of Nursing Education


Rajesh G. Konnur & Sangita Singh

AbstractThe first written record of the word “education” is found in 1530s. It comes from the Latin word “educare” (meaning: to educate, to train, to rear, to bring up) as well as the words ‘educatio’ and “educationis”, which signify “bring up” or “rearing”. Education propels growth of an individual and ultimately leads to self-realization i.e. highest epitome of “knowledge” or “peace”.

Key Words: Education, peace, knowledge,

Definition and Meaning of Peace:

The concept of peace has an important cultural dimension. Traditionally it is linked as with inner peace (peace existing in our minds or hearts) by our philosophers. Western world views peace as to be outside the individual (absence of war or violent conflict). For example, in India the word peace is “Shanti” and implies “a perfect order of the mind” or “peace of mind”. Gandhiji based his philosophy and strategy on a concept called Ahimsa, which means broadly to refrain from anything harmful. He said, “… literally speaking, Ahimsa means non-violence. It means that you may not offend anybody; you may not harbor uncharitable thoughts, even in connection with those who consider you as an enemy.” In the Maya tradition, peace refers to the concept of welfare; it is linked to the idea of a perfect balance between the different areas of our lives.

A great Norwegian Scholar of Peace, John Galtung defines peace as  the absence of structural violence. Structural violence is a form of discrimination against individuals and groups in a society.

Positive peace means no war or violent conflict combined with a situation where there is equity, justice and development.

Negative peace means that there is no war; no violent conflict between states or within states or nations.

We would summarize these two concepts in the following way:

No war = Negative peace

No war + Social justice/ development = Positive peace

Relationship between Education and Global Peace:

Education is perhaps the most important tool for human development and the eradication of poverty and ill spirits within society. It is the means by which successive generations develop the values, knowledge and skills for their personal health and safety and for future political, economic, social and cultural development. This may be one reason why the MDGs place so much emphasis on achieving universal, free and compulsory education through Education for All (EPA).

Education is the foundation of a peaceful society. It builds literacy, respect, dignity and opportunity for all. On a planet of 7.3 million, peace education i.e. education that specifically promotes respect, empathy, and mutual understanding and conflict management skills, is more crucial than ever. This is even truer in developing countries where often more than 45% of the population is under 14 and children who crave for a peaceful live amid conflict.

The goal of education should be the full flowering of the humans on this earth. According to a UNESCO study “… the physical, intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of the individual into a complete man/ woman is the fundamental aim of education. The goal of education is also to form children into human persons committed to work for the creation of human communities of love, fellowship, freedom, justice and harmony.”

According to James Ross, “The aim of education is the development of valuable personality and spiritual individuality”. The true aim of education cannot be other than the highest development of the individual as a member of the society. Let education burn the individual flame, feeding it with the oil of society.

Interrelationship between Nursing Education/ Practice and Global Peace:

Education is a process which draws out the best in the child or student with the aim of producing well – balanced personalities, culturally alert, morally upright, vocationally self- sufficient and internationally liberal.

Nursing is a dynamic, therapeutic and educative process. It responds to physical, psychological, social, economic and spiritual aspects of human beings. It is a helping profession and always upholds the dignity of human values and spirit of love and peace. The core aspects of nursing are care, cure and co-ordination. This is applicable not only in case of human beings but also beyond living things.

Violent conflict has a grave impact on human health and wellbeing. Violence (inter, intra, external) affects the humans and globally all. Morbidity and mortality are due to the direct or indirect consequences of conflict related to displacement from homes and barriers in access to food, shelter, clean water, sanitation facilities and professional health care.

Nursing profession was profoundly influenced by nursing leaders who provided care during war. Nursing interventions during war were an important stage in helping nursing defines its mission and domain of knowledge that brought peace among the various communities.

In recent years, nursing profession has been championed as a” bridge for peace” with the potential to reduce conflict through a variety of interventions. However, nurses working in situations of violent conflict practice under a range of domains including humanitarian relief, human rights promotion and health sector development.

World Health Organization (WHO) argues that prevention of violent conflict is an important component of health. Good public health practice requires identifying risk factors and determinants of collective violence and developing approaches to resolve conflicts without resorting to violence. In this case, nursing/ nurses have to urge governments to abide by international agreements and solve conflicts nonviolently. This declares nursing’s respect for human life and dignity.

In this era of globalization and power struggling attitude, the environment has been unsafe and unhealthy to live. Now the time has come to transform the society toward a more non- violent and harmonious culture. This includes educating ourselves and others about the effects of war and weaponry, political advocacy and conducting research into the suffering associated with war.

Peace is a dynamic, bio-psychosocial construct. Nursing deals with prevention, care and promotion of health and well being. The extended and expanded roles of nurses have in -depth responsibilities in uplifting human kindness and ultimately bring peace in an individual, family and at large globally. The nursing programmes are designed to make a ‘life’ a better and peaceful one.


Peace is a dynamic state of mind. It is intrinsic and also extrinsic in nature. Nurses and nursing education can strengthen the global peace mission by collaborative work and ethics. 


  • Alan Smith (2010). The Influence of Education on Conflict and Peace Building. UNESCO.
  • Friedrich (2009). Theories of Peace and Conflict and their Relationship to Education’.Pg: 4-49.
  • Galymzhan Kirbassov. Peace and Sustainable Development – A Two-way Relationship. Pg: 1-4.
  • Johan Galtung (1999). Theories of Peace. International Peace Research. Oslo.
  • Shari. L. Redden (2015). The Effectiveness of Combining Simulation & Role Playing in Nursing Education”.



The History of Banking Industry in India

P. Lahiri

There is a difference of opinion as to whether the French word ‘Banque’ or the Italian word ‘Banca’ is the genesis of the English word “Bank”. Nevertheless, both these words point to some kind of a bench or a counter where money exchange transactions used to take place historically.

Charles Woelfel’s Encyclopedia of Banking and Finance more comprehensively defines a bank as “… an organisation engaged in any or all of the various functions of banking i.e. receiving, collecting, transferring, paying, lending, investing, dealing, exchanging and servicing (safe deposit, custodianship, agency, trusteeship) money and have claims to money both domestically or internationally.” In India, Section 5(b) of Banking Regulation Act, 1949, which was the first state act to control and regulate the activities of banking companies, defines banking as “Accepting, for the purpose of lending and investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise.” Importance of bank in the modern age cannot be overemphasised since finance is the life blood of trade, commerce and industry of a nation. Today, we come across broadly, three types of banks: commercial/ retail banks, investment banks and the central bank. Banks, in most countries, are regulated by the national government or its central bank. Commercial banks are those that typically are involved in receiving deposits and managing withdrawals as well as supplying short-term credit to individuals and small businesses. Investment banks are those that provide corporate clients with investment services like underwriting and merger and acquisition (M&A) assistance. Central banks are chiefly regulatory bodies working for ensuring currency stability, overseeing money supply, controlling inflation and devising monetary policy. The Federal Reserve in the US, Bank of England in the UK and Reserve Bank of India are examples of a central bank.

Banking in India:

Ancient times:

History of banking system in India is as old as the early Vedic period. References regarding deposits, advances, pledging for loan, and interest rates are found in Manusmriti the book of Manu, the great Hindu jurist. There is mention in ‘Manusmriti’ of terms like Rnapatra, Rnalekhya, Kusidin (soodhkhor: kind of usurer in English) etc. This clearly indicates that banking did exist during the ancient Vedic civilization. During the Mauryan period, we find quotes in Kautilya’s (or Chanakya’s) Arthashastra (300 B.C.) about banking products like “adesha” which was equivalent to Bill of Exchange of current times. It also referred to ‘merchant’ bankers who used to receive deposits, advance loans and carried out other functions akin to those of modern day banking. Since ancients times Shroffs, Seths, Mahajans, Chettis, Sahukars etc. belonging to the Vaishya community have been carrying on banking business by accepting deposits and lending money for interest on the amount loaned to people. They even advanced loans to kings and managed the currency of the kingdom. These were indigenous bankers, primarily money lenders who did play some role in the economy of the then kingdoms by lending money and financing trade and commerce including foreign trades.

Muslim Era:

During the Muslim rule, particularly in the Mughal period there was some decline in the money lending business as Islam forbids taking of interest. However, with enhanced use of metallic money called Sicca with names of rulers and governors stuck on them and appointment of more revenue collectors, bankers, money changers and mint officers, the economy gained momentum. 18th century India was one of the most attractive centres for trade and commerce in the world. Flourishing trade centres developed in Peshawar, Lahore, Agra, Surat, Ahmedabad and Daulatabad in the north & west; Benares, Patna, Berhampore (Qassimbazar), Dhaka in the east and Golconda and Bijapur in the south. Trade boomed in fine muslin (textile), silk, saltpetre and indigo. From Central Asia came gorgeous carpets, lavish dress, dry fruits, horses and also slaves. Principal instrument of trade was the Hundi (a kind of IOU) which could be customised according to need to be used in trade and credit transactions. The men who engaged themselves in all these transactions of money transfers, issuance of letters of exchange were called Shroffs and Sahukars. These indigenous bankers by their extraordinary ‘power of purchase’ were not only centres of wealth, but also the epicentre of power during the Mughal Empire as it was presumed that they could even purchase thrones with their money power. However for agricultural loans the peasants continued to depend on the small village money lenders charging high interest rates.

British Period:

With the advent of the British East India Company there was major transformation in banking ideas. The western concept of banking made its appearance in the country with the founding of ‘The Bank of Hindustan’ in 1770 by M/s Alexander & Company but it is said, it did not follow some of the basic tenets of banking as per modern definition of banking. The first joint stock bank established in 1786 was The General Bank of India. Subsequently, the East India Company founded the first Presidency bank, namely Bank of Calcutta in 1806 which later in 1809 was renamed Bank of Bengal. This was followed by establishment of two other presidency banks, The Bank of Bombay in 1840 and Bank of Madras in 1843. The 3 presidency banks which started functioning as quasi-central bankers of issue, bankers to the Government and Bankers’ bank were later merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India. The oldest surviving joint stock bank in India is Allahabad Bank founded in 1865 by some Europeans in Allahabad. The first commercial bank in India having limited liability and entirely managed by Indians was Oudh Commercial Bank established in 1881 in Faizabad (in Uttar Pradesh). This bank which failed in 1958, served only local customers with no branches. The Punjab National Bank Limited was registered under the Indian Companies Act in 1894, with its office in Lahore, now in Pakistan. In the wake of the freedom struggle, the Swadeshi movement inspired some Indian entrepreneurs to venture into banking which saw founding of Bank of India Limited (1906), Canara Bank Limited (1906), Indian Bank Limited (1907) Bank of Baroda Limited (1908), Central Bank of India Limited (1911). The boom period of 1906-1913 helped the growth of these banks along with some others which did not survive in later years. The period between 1913 and 1917 was one of crisis as some 100 odd banks failed during these years. The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) was established in 1935 with private shareholders. The need for a central bank was met with its establishment. It took over the functions involving government transactions, hitherto carried out by the Imperial Bank.


By the time of independence in 1947, India inherited an extremely weak banking structure with a large urban centre bias; loans and advances were made available mostly to relatives of promoters and directed primarily to the trading sector only. Most of the smaller towns and almost all villages in the country were devoid of any banking facility. Certain geographical locations had a skewed presence of branches with no bank having a true all India network. Weak banks continued to fail till 1948 due to a variety of reasons ranging from inadequate capital structure, poor liquidity of assets due to injudicious advancing, lack of regulatory control and mismanagement. This underlined the need to regulate and control commercial banks. With the passing of the Banking Regulations Act, 1949, RBI was conferred with more powers of supervision, control and licensing of banks and the authority to conduct periodic inspections. The Act provided the legal framework for regulation of the banking system by RBI. In 1955 the State Bank of India (SBI) was constituted when the RBI acquired controlling interest in the Imperial Bank to form the largest commercial bank in the country. The nationalisation of the Imperial Bank of India became part of a wider objective to direct the funds of the banking system into certain neglected, but important, sectors of the economy such as agriculture, and to spread banking facilities in rural areas. In 1959, State Bank of India (subsidiary) act was passed to nationalise the seven subsidiary banks of the State Bank of India. These seven banks were the erstwhile banks of the princely states which merged into the union of India after independence.

Bank Nationalisation:

Since 1951 Government of India embarked upon planned economic development of the country with social justice. The government sought to play an active role in the economic life of the nation by introducing 5-year plans. As in other sectors of the economy, the government introduced several important reforms in the banking sector for its transformation. The aim was to bring in structural changes in commercial banking by bringing in certain banking legislations. To avert bank failures, the government in 1960 added a new section (Sec. 45) in the Banking Companies Act, 1949 which empowered the RBI to seek consent of the government to prepare a scheme of amalgamation of weak banks with strong and well-managed banks. Since the government opted for a socialist pattern of economy, it set a goal for itself to achieve a society where wealth shall be distributed as equitably as possible without government playing a totalitarian role. Accordingly, government adopted a model of mixed economy with the private and the public sectors functioning independently of each other. It preferred a scenario where the means of production, distribution and exchange would be owned by the state on behalf of the people and the working class, for consolidation of resources to build a controlled economy. Towards this direction the government enacted the Banking Laws (Amendment) Act, 1968 which envisaged a scheme of ‘social control over banks’. The immediate objective was to remove certain deficiencies in the functioning of scheduled commercial banks whereby the banks were directing their advances to the large and medium scale industries only and the priority sectors such as agriculture, small-scale indus­tries and exports stood neglected. Large industrialists who monopolised the board of directors in these banks were only interested in sanctioning large amount of loans and ad­vances to the industries they were connected with. However, this scheme of social control over banks was tried for only 168 days and the government decided to go for full nationalisation of 14 major commercial banks of the country on July 19, 1969. The motives for nationalization were both political and economic. Subsequently, in 1980, another six banks were nationalised bringing the total number of nationalised commercial banks to 20. The reasons that led the government to take this drastic measure can be outlined in the following points.   

  1. Bank deposits mobilised by commercial banks were largely lent out to security based borrowers in trade and industry.
  2. Since the banks were controlled by business houses, sectors of the economy such as agriculture, small and village industries, which the government called priority sector, though were in need of funds for their expansion, were actually starved of funds.
  3. It was necessary to spread banking across the country through expansion of banking network (by opening new bank branches) in the un-banked areas.
  4. In order to reduce the regional imbalance in respect of existing branch network of banks, it was necessary for banks to go into the rural and semi-urban areas where the banking facilities were unavailable.
  5. Agriculture and its allied activities despite being the largest contributor to the national income were deprived of their due share in bank credit.
  6. It was felt necessary to develop banking habit among a large section of population as more than 70% of Indian population lived in villages.

Post nationalisation, the banks were given quantitative targets to achieve the twin main objectives of nationalisation namely, expansion of branch network and directing a certain percentage of total disbursed credit into the priority sector. The target for priority sector lending for nationalised banks was fixed at 40% of net advances.

There were arguments for and against the act of nationalisation of banks. The principal arguments in favour was attaining a socialistic society, directing more credit to the priority sector of the economy and lowering of interest rates for credit extended to weaker sections, backward areas and the export sector. Those arguing against bank nationalisation believed that the reasons for nationalisation were more political than economic, existing set of evils of the sector would be substituted by another set of evils, inefficiencies inherent in public sector will result in financial losses, customer service will be affected and corruption and nepotism will creep in.

However, the positive impact of nationalisation was quite evident on the ground especially in respect of significant expansion of branch network, especially in rural areas; breaking of social barriers between bankers and customers with massive expansion of customer base; increase in direct and indirect employment opportunities; huge jump in the quantum of deposits and advance in reaching 90% of population. All these made nationalised banks a driving force of the Indian economy. Hence, positives of nationalisation far outweighed its negative impacts.

Narsimhan Committee Reports:

Looking back at the Indian banking system after nearly five decades since nationalisation, there are reasons to be concerned about the health of the banking institutions. The Narasimhan committee instituted by the government of India under former RBI Governor M. Narasimham in 1991, made significant discoveries about the health of Indian banks and the areas of concern for the banking sector from a regulatory perspective.

Important recommendations of Narasimhan Committee Report-I (Committee on Financial System) of 1991 are summarised below:

  1. It advocated easing of available liquidity with banks by lowering of SLR to the minimum level of 25% allowed by law and also lowering the CRR from its high level.
  2. It advocated gradual phasing out of government directed lending as against lending by commercial judgement. It suggested capping of directed lending to the priority sector at 10% from the existing 40% to increase profitability of banks in a competitive environment.
  3. It recommended reduction in number of public sector banks by mergers. It envisaged three or four banks including SBI to be developed as international banks; eight to ten banks with national spread to be positioned as universal banks and Regional Rural Banks concentrating on rural and agricultural finance.
  4. It recommended interest rate deregulation for benefit in emerging market conditions.
  5. It advocated healthier banks to raise more capital from the capital market.
  6. It recommended more transparency in banks’ balance sheets.
  7. It suggested internal audit and inspection.
  8. It wanted government to commit that there would be no further nationalisations and open the sector to newer private banks subject to compliance of regulations.
  9. It advocated setting up of debt recovery tribunals for speedy recovery of sticky non-performing assets (NPAs).
  10. It also recommended establishment of a special financial institution called Asset Reconstruction Fund (ARF) which would purchase debts from banks at a discount to pursue their recovery. This would ease the fund situation of banks burdened with doubtful debts.

Important recommendations of Narasimhan Committee Report-II of 1998 were:

  1. Strengthening of banks: It recommended merger of stronger banks to have multiplier effects on industry.
  2. Autonomy to banks: Greater autonomy was recommended for public sector banks in order to function with professionalism at par with their international counterparts.
  3. Narrow banking: Rehabilitating weak banks having heavier burden of NPAs by allowing them to invest their funds in short term risk-free assets.
  4. Capital adequacy ratio: For improving the inherent strength of banks, the committee recommended that the government should raise the prescribed capital adequacy ratio to 9% by 2000 and to 10% by 2002.

Implementation of many of Narasimhan committee recommendations in the aftermath of 1990s was a kind of watershed in reforming the Indian banking system. For determining true health of banks, RBI mandated adoption of Prudential Accounting Norms for (a) Recognition of Income; (b) Classification of Assets; and (c) Provision for Loans & Advances.

On income recognition RBI wanted banks to account for income from performing assets on accrual basis and on non-performing assets on cash basis.

On classification of assets RBI proposed classifying assets as (a) Standard/ Performing assets and (b) Non-Performing Assets (NPAs). NPAs were to be further classified as (i) Sub-Standard Assets; (ii) Doubtful Assets; and (iii) Loss Assets on the basis of their vintage in respect of non recovery of interest/ instalments.

On Provisioning on Loans & Advances, RBI directed banks to make appropriate accounting provisions on consideration of the quality of assets (depending on credit standing status), the value of collateral security and its erosion.

  Diversity in the Indian Banking scenario:

Besides commercial banks the country has developed specialised banks catering to various financial needs of the country. These banks are ―

1)      Co-operative Banks: These banks mainly serve the needs of agriculture and allied activities, rural-based industries and to a lesser extent, trade and industry in urban centres. Indian co-operative bank structure is one of the largest in the world.

2)       National Bank for Agricultural and Rural Development (NABARD): Promoted by RBI and Government of India in 1982, NABARD is India’s specialized bank working in the field of agriculture and rural development by providing refinance credit to other credit providers in rural areas, regulates them and optimises the agricultural processes.

3)      EXIM Bank (Export Import Bank of India): It was established in 1982 with the object to provide Marketing Advisory Service, Export Advisory Service to exporters & importers and also to offer financial products like Lines of Credit, Project Export Finance and Buyer’s Credit.

4)      Payment Bank: It is a special category bank which can offer selective banking services to their customers like acceptance of deposit up to Rupees 1 Lac from a customer, provide payment and remittance services, offer internet/ phone banking, issue debit/ ATM card but cannot issue credit card nor can offer loans. They can also function as business correspondents for other banks.

 Challenges ahead of the Indian Banking Industry:

Deregulation of the banking sector has thrown open new opportunities for banks to increase revenue earnings by diversifying their activities into investment banking, insurance, credit cards, depository services, mortgage financing, securitisation, etc. At the same time, liberalisation in the sector has introduced greater competition among banks, both domestic and foreign, as well as competition from mutual funds, NBFCs and small savings organisations like the post office, etc. Competition will be tougher by the day as Indian banks will have to benchmark themselves against the best in the world addressing substantial issues like improvement in profitability, efficiency and technology. The Indian banking industry still has a long road ahead.

References: <<



B.S. Lark

Retired Professor

Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.


A simple graph paper vernier scale has been described to improve the readability of the scale of various laboratory equipment like burette, graduated pipette, cylinder, thermometer etc.

To enhance the readability of the scale of various graduated simple laboratory like burette, graduated pipette, cylinder, dilatometer thermometer etc. the author introduced a paper vernier scale. This paper vernier is very simple to make and is used just like a parallax card. With the help of this the level of the liquid in any of the above equipment having a graduated stem can be read quite precisely even when it lies anywhere between the graduation marks. In this way for example, the level in a burette calibrated up to 0.1 ml can be read up to 0.01 ml. Presently a modification is being suggested which renders the making of the paper vernier still simpler. Originally a vernier scale was suggested to be made by drawing the scale on a plane piece of paper, where 9 major scale divisions (MSDs) of the graduated part of the equipment are divided into 10 vernier scale divisions (VSDs) to give a least count of 0.1 of the size of the MSD (I.E. 0.01 ml in the case of an ordinary burette).

In the present modification, instead of making the scale on a piece of plane paper, use of a piece of graph paper has been suggested. The emergence of various combinations leading to various least counts and their usefulness has been discussed.


A rectangular piece (4 cm x 6 cm) of evenly cut graph paper is taken and its one smooth edge is aligningly placed against the scale of the graduated stem of the equipment. Number of vernier (graph paper) scale divisions matching against the main (equipment) scale divisions are read. Some different simple combinations and least counts of the corresponding vernier scales are summarized in Table 1. It may be remarked here that only those combinations wherein the matched VSDs and MSDs differ by either one or two divisions have been included in the table. When the difference is one, the least count of the vernier scale so obtained, is simply 1/n times the size of the MSD, if the difference is 2, then the least count becomes 2/n times and so on. Concomitantly the usefulness of the scale falls, as in one complete vernier scale, two or more units would lapse. The comments for the usefulness of the various combinations are also given in the table.

Table 1: Least Count of Various Combinations 

MSD VSD Least Count= (VSD- MSD)/ VSD Remarks
2 3 1/3 not useful
3 4 ¼ not useful
4 5 1/5 not very useful, but easy
5 6 1/6 some useful
6 7 1/7 some useful
7 8 1/8 quite useful
8 9 1/9 quite useful
9 10 1/10 most useful
10 11 1/11 quite useful
3 5 2/5 not so useful, but easy
5 7 2/7 not so useful, but easy
7 9 2/9 not so useful, but easy
9 11 2/11 not so useful, but easy


A vernier scale made on a piece of cm graph paper is illustrated in A Simple Graph Paper Vernier Scale Graph papers of other dimensions available in the market or self-prepared may also be used.

Slits S1 and S2 are made on the graph paper vernier scale so as to make the vernier scale slip on the burette or any other such device underuse. Slit S3 is meant to make visible the matching of zero of vernier scale with the level of the liquid in the burette and the matching of MSDs and VSDs.


  1. Lark, B. S (1996). A Paper Vernier Scale for Various Laboratory Equipments. J Chem. Educ 1996, 73 (2), p 177.






Nomophobia: Challenges and Management

Dr. Rajesh G. Konnur

The recent suicidal epidemiology among students due to Blue Whale gaming is alarming. Children, especially students are haphazardly using mobiles and electronic gadgets. The moment they are separated from their devices, anxiety and frustration hits them like a typhoon. Recent mental health literature research suggests that children and students suffering from nomophobia feel lonely with their phones and gadgets. Thus, these people isolate from real circumstances.

According to Envoy (2014), Nomophobia is defined as “the fear of being out of mobile phone contact”. The term, nomophobia, is an abbreviation for no-mobile phone phobia and it was first coined during a study by a U.K. Post Office in 2008 to investigate anxieties mobile phone users suffer. In order to refer to people with nomophobia, two other terms were introduced and colloquially used; nomophobe and nomophobia. A nomophobe is a noun and refers to someone who is affected with nomophobia. The term, nomophobic, on the other hand, is an adjective and is used to describe the characteristics of nomophobes &/or behaviors related to nomophobia.

The 2008 study in the UK, conducted on over 2100 people, demonstrated that some 53% of mobile phone users suffered from nomophobia (mail online 2010). The study also revealed that men were more prone to nomophobia than were women, with 58% of male participants and 48% of female participants indicating feelings of anxiety when unable to use their phone.

Another research study conducted by Secuor Envoy (2012), a security company in the UK, surveyed 1000 employees and showed that the number of people suffering from nomophobia increased from 53% to 66%. Unlike the 2010 study, the 2014 study that women were more susceptible to nomophobia, with 70% of the women compared to 61% of the men expressing feeling of anxiety about losing their phone or not being able to use their phone. In terms of the relationship between age & nomophobia, the study found that young adults, aged 18-24 were most prone to nomophobia with 77% of them identified as nomophobic, followed by users aged 25-34 at 68%. Moreover, mobile phone users in the age group of 55 & over were found to be the third most nomophobic users.

The recent definition by Nardi (2014), defines nomophobic as follows:

“Nomophobia is the modern fear of being unable to communicate through a mobile phone or the Internet… Nomophobia is a term that refers to a collection of behaviors or symptoms related to mobile phone use. Nomophobia is a situational phobia related to agoraphobia and includes the fear of becoming ill & not receiving immediate assistance.”

Another definition by International Business Times (2013) seems to put an emphasis on the feelings of anxiety caused by unavailability or inaccessibility of mobile phone.

Nomophobia or “no mobile phone phobia” is an anxiety which people face when they feel they could not get signal from a mobile tower, run out of battery, forget to take the phone with them or simply do not receive calls, texts or email notifications for a certain period of time. In short, it is a psychological fear of losing mobile or cell phone contact.

Nomophobia and smart phone addiction share many qualities, but the primary trait each disorder shares is that the smart phone is a source of relief and comfort. The key reason for this that smart phones have become central in communication and are perceived necessary to own in order to use the phone compulsively to the point where it can be defined as behavioral addiction.

Both nomophobia and Smart Phone Addiction Disorder have many comarbid disorders, two or more disorders within an individual , such as : anxiety and panic disorder, other forms of phobia (social phobia), obsessive compulsive disorder, eating disorders, any disorder under the umbrella of depression from dysthmia to major depressive disorder, alcohol and drug addiction, as well as other behavioral addiction disorders (including mobile &/or internet dependence, gambling, online gambling, compulsive shopping and sexual behaviors) and personality disorders (borderline, antisocial and avoiding).

 Symptomology of Nomophobia:

The suffering client expresses multiple symptoms. The classical symptoms of nomophobia are anxiety, depression, trembling, perspiration, tachycardia, loneliness and even panic attacks in extreme cases.

Smart phone addiction & nomophobia share comarbid disorders such as social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorders, loneliness & atypical depression.  The DSM-5, states that non-substance addictions and conventional addictions have a high comorbidity with other disorders such as alcoholism and major depressive disorders.

Etiology of Nomophobia:

There are several causes/ etiology for nomophobia.

Psychosocial Role:

According to Clayton et al (2015), smart phone addiction may have psychosocial causes stemming from the need to keep in touch with others. One theory that supports that is FoMO (Fear of Missing Out) (Przybylski et al 2014). FoMO is defined as “a pervasive apprehension that others might be having rewarding experiences from which one is absent; FoMO is characterized by the desire to stay continually connected with what others are doing. Just like smart phone addiction and nomophobia, FoMO was established as a result of smart phone use and is based upon the psychosocial need to stay in good social starding with peers and to be constantly involved among in-groups. This may provide a connection with social groups & an outlet for daily stresses.

Embodied Cognition  and Extended Self:

Embodied Cognition can be defined as “psychological processes are influenced by the body, including body morphology, sensory systems and motor systems (Glenberg, 2010).  It can be further defined in more specific views. Margaret Wilson defined six views of Embodied Cognition as: cognition is situated, time pressured, we off-load cognition into the environment (such as maps and recordings to ease our cognitive load), the environment is part of our cognition [the mind did not evolve independently from the environment], cognition is for action, and off- line cognition is body based. Specifically, the third view that cognition can be off loaded onto the environment applies to smart phones. Since smart phones have internet connectivity, there is no cognitive task for calling declarative memories like facts and events. Instead of reinforcing memories, smart phones limit the ability to remember declarative memories with web searching.

Extended Self Theory is defined as “an individual’s possessions, whether knowingly or unknowingly, intentionally or unintentionally, can become an extension of one’s self”. For example, someone [basketball player or carpenter] who uses a tool (basketball or hammer) regularly encodes the tool into their neural network. The weight and dimensions of the tool are innate to the user and can manipulate the tool with ease compared to someone who has never used the tool. The Extended Self Theory can be applied to smart phone users as well. Clayton (2015) explains smart phone loss as the “unintentional loss of a possession which should be regarded as a loss or lessening of self”.

Digital/ Cyborg Anthropology:

Digital/ Cyborg Anthropology is a field of Anthropology that “explores the production of humanness through machines” (Gary 2005). Case (2007) stated that smart phones have “effects of widespread mobile telephony on the social and spatial relations of individuals in the post modern state”. Distinct from current phones, older phones were situated in one area such as the home or in telephone booth. Modes such as mail took time. These modes had time and space as factors and Case argues that because phones are mobile and in real time, phones can compress time and space, giving users more control over communication.

Case also argued that there is a “techonosocial movement where there is a degree of control over social interaction because of technology. Because there are no nonverbal cues such as facial movement or body position, she states that “a cell phone interaction provides one half of a conversation equation.” Posturing and making one’s image seems more socially desirable.

She also argued that phones provide a “liminal” space. Liminal in the context of mobile-phones is defined as “The intersection between face-to-face interaction and cell phone conversations is a “betwixt” & “between” social space, in which a caller is neither fully engaged with those who are physically co-present, not fully mentally co-present (except for the technically mediated auditory connection) with the person on the other end of the line and shows the isolation of smart phone communication.

Flow, Impulsivity & Reinforcement:

Many studies on phone addiction attribute phone use to either positive or negative experiences & reinforcement (Przybylski et al, 2013). The study measured flow, the mindset of an individual who is fully immersed and hyper focus in an activity whilst experiencing pleasure (known colloquially as “in the zone”) & convenience of a phone to the amount of use to see if there was a correlation. The researchers found that flow had a positive correlation with phone use but connivance allowed flow to provide instant gratification & positively reinforced smart phone use.

While flow is a positive reinforce for smart phone use, impulsivity may be regarded as the negative reinforcer. One study in particular found that impulsivity, the urgency to check a phone & the inability to focus on a task was positively correlated with perceived dependence of a smart phone (Billieux, 2007). In the context of addiction, impulsivity is associated with negative affect. If an addict feels negative emotions, they take their stimulus to stop the negative emotions. Billieux et al (2010) found that their participants used their phones when they were feeling “bad or “bored” & would negatively reinforce their behavior.

These patterns of positive & negative reinforcement follow the same pattern of behavioral addiction, which has been shown to follow the same neurological path as substance addiction in terms of reward & reinforcement (Grant, 2011).

Collectively, these rewards ( social gratification, more  control of social interaction through liminal space, offloading cognitive tasks, avoidance coping) compounded with consequences (anxiety, or nomophobia, FoMO, impulsivity, isolation) shows that excess smart phone use follows the same pattern as any addiction in terms of positive and then negative reinforcement, especially if the user has an existing disorder (social anxiety, depression, low self-esteem ) & that nomophobia can be referred as smart phone addiction.

You are Nomophobic when:

  • If you wake up in the night every two hours just to check your phone.
  • You check your phone even when you are having lunch or dinner.
  • You start to panic when your phone is about to run out of battery & you can’t rest until you put it on charging.
  • Feeling that you’re missing out on life when there is no signal.
  • Urge to answer the call, no matter how busy you are.
  • Taking mobile phone to wash room/ bathroom.
  • You’ve checked your phone twice reading this article.

It is detrimental because:

  • It causes anxiety. People suffering from nomophobia tend to suffer from anxiety when separated from their phones. This causes high blood pressure. It also reduces attention span of an individual, which can harm one’s work productivity.
  • It’s a colossal waste of time. Avoid looking at your phone, while doing other activities. Recent research suggests that this multitasking doesn’t work, as you can’t retain and process information at the same time.
  • It affects your sleep patterns. The blue light emitted from phone, signals to your brain that it’s time to wake up and it suppresses melatonin, the hormone responsible for dictating your sleep rhyme.
  • It leads to skin trouble. Constant contact with your phone can cause acne, allergies and dark spots. Other symptoms in long run seen are deafness and cancer.
  • It affects your relationship with friends and family, thus affecting your social skills. It’s considered rude if you constantly check your phone, when you’re talking to them.

Coping with Nomophobia:

  • Limit the use of mobile phone.
  • Turn off the mobile before going to bed.
  • Customize notifications in phone. Constant notifications from various apps in your phone are distracting.
  • Delete apps that are not required.
  • Use watch & calculator instead of apps.
  • Take phone breaks while working.
  • Balance screen time and in-person time each week. For every hour you invest in front of a screen, you invest in human contact.
  • Try a technology every month, where you actually go for a day or more without a computer, tablet or cell phone. You’ll feel liberated.
  • Place your phone at least 15 inches away from you sleep at night. This helps to keep you in a safer zone.
  • Block your day in time zones, where you spend time using technology, but also have blocks of time for organic, genuine interaction with people. Spend more time with friends and family. Limit your phone use, when you are with them. Watch films on a big screen, rather than on your phone.
  • Cultivate a habit of book reading, love the books.
  • Involve in sports, out -door games and in social activities.
  • Consult the health personnel if symptoms persist beyond control.


Goods and Services Tax (GST) regime in India

Prapanna Lahiri


All the different types of taxes levied by the government can be categorised as direct and indirect taxes. Direct taxes are paid in entirety by a taxpayer directly to the government and cannot be transferred or shifted to another person. Income tax which an individual pays directly to the government is an example of direct tax, as the burden of the tax falls flatly on the individual who earns a taxable income and its incidence cannot be shifted to others. Indirect taxes, on the other hand, are those taxes which can be shifted to another person. Value Added Tax (VAT) is an example of indirect tax included in the bill of goods and services that one procures from others. The manufacturer or service provider, who pays the initial tax, later shifts the tax burden to the consumers by including the tax to determine the final price of the commodity or service sold to them. There are other indirect taxes such as Excise Duty, Countervailing (customs) Duty, Service Tax, (State) Value Added Tax/ Sales Tax , Octroi/ Entry Tax and Entertainment tax, the last three being levied by state and local governments and the rest by the federal government.

GST is “one indirect tax” for the whole nation. This will make the entire nation one unified common market. This one tax is meant to bring about a uniform system of indirect taxation as substitute of various such taxes levied by central and state governments as well as local authorities. Hence, GST is touted as one nation, one market and one tax. At present, more than 140 countries have tried this deviant scheme of indirect taxation in one or the other form. France was the first country to introduce GST in 1954.

India made history now, on the midnight of June 30 through the introduction of the bill in Parliament, on Goods and Service Tax (GST), the mother of all tax reforms. As stated above, this biggest tax reform post-independence seeks to amalgamate several central and state taxes into a single tax under one umbrella, to mitigate cascading or double taxation and thereby simplify the current system of indirect taxation. Accordingly, with the introduction of GST, central and state governments are set to abolish all multiple taxes (except customs duty) by simultaneously levying dual GST comprising of central GST (CGST) and state/Union Territory GST (SGST/UTGST) for supply of goods and services within a state or union territory. For all interstate supplies a single integrated GST (IGST), which would be the sum total of CGST and SGST/UTGST, is to be levied. Centre and state governments, except the state of J & K, have enacted laws to levy GST. Being a destination based tax the scheme of GST proposes to levy and collect tax on the basis of location of consumption of goods and services and not on the basis of location of their production. A single tax is proposed to be levied on the supply of goods and services at all stages, right from manufacture up to final consumption.  Credits of input taxes paid at each stage will be available for setoff in the subsequent stage of value addition. It makes GST, essentially, a tax only on value addition at each stage. In a nutshell, only value addition will be taxed and burden of tax is to be borne by the final consumer though his invoice will bear only the GST charged by the last dealer in the supply chain, with setoff benefits made available at all the previous stages.

Some substantive features of GST regime: GST works on the principle of Value added tax (VAT) with the basic objective of taxing the value addition at the each stage of business, achieved by allowing tax paid as set off/credit against tax liability on output/income. It is a comprehensive tax, levied on all transactions made for a consideration, in manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services (except the exempted goods and services), at a national level which, in principle, should not make any distinction between goods and services for levying of the tax. Certain commodities such as Alcohol for human consumption, Petroleum Products (crude petroleum, motor spirit/petrol, high speed diesel, aviation turbine fuel and natural gas) and Electricity have been proposed to be left outside of the purview of GST for the present. Besides taxes on these products, real estate-stamp duty and property tax shall continue to attract taxes as per the structure prevailing before introduction of GST.

Basic methodology of GST is based on the principle of value added tax (VAT). For a simple understanding of the approach, the very common example of making of a shirt, at its different stages, may be considered.

Stage – 1:  The shirt maker buys raw material or inputs such as cloth, thread, buttons and tailoring equipment — worth `100 which sum includes a tax of `10. With these raw materials a shirt is manufactured.

Stage – 2: The shirt-maker adds value, say of `30, to the shirt by cutting and stitching it. The gross value of the product (the shirt) becomes (100+30) `130. At 10% rate of tax, the tax payable on output (the shirt) will then be (10% of 130) = `13. But under GST, a tax of `10 has already been included and paid against the price of consumed raw material/inputs and the same can be set off from this tax accrual of `13 on the output. Therefore, the effective GST incidence on the shirt maker is only `3 (13-10).

Stage – 3: At the next stage, after the good (the shirt) is purchased by the wholesaler from the manufacturer at `130, the latter adds his margin (surplus) of, say, `20 to the good, the gross value of the shirt he sells, thus, becomes `130+20= `150. Tax payable at 10% on of the wholesaler’s output (`150) will be `15. But under GST, from the tax of `15 payable on his output he is entitled to set off the tax of `13 already included and paid in the preceding stages on the good purchased from the manufacturer. Thus, the effective GST incidence on the wholesaler’s output is only `2 (15 – 13).

Stage – 4 (Final):  In the final stage, a retailer buys the shirt from the wholesaler. He adds value or margin of, say, `10 to his purchase price of Rs 150. The gross value of his sales, therefore, comes up to `150+10 = `160. The tax on his output at 10% rate shall be `16. But by setting off the tax paid on his purchase from the wholesaler (`15) against this tax now payable (`16), the effective GST incidence on the output of the retailer comes down to `1 (16–15).

Thus, the cumulative GST on the entire value chain from the raw material/input suppliers (who can claim no tax credit since they are assumed to have not purchased anything themselves) through the manufacturer, wholesaler and retailer is, `10+3+2+1=`16. The final incidence of tax falls on the final buyer (consumer) of the shirt. Against this cumulative tax of `16 on value additions realised at various stages of the value chain under GST the total tax payable under the erstwhile central excise/sales tax regime would have been `10+13+15+16=`54.

In the above simple illustration the difference in the tax incidence under the two regimes – central excise/sales tax and GST – clearly arises out of double taxation in the former where the raw material taxed at the first stage i.e. Rs.10 gets again included in the tax at the second stage, again at 3rd stage and finally at the 4thstage. This is what is called cascading effect i.e. tax on tax till the level of the final consumer. One main objective of Goods & Service Tax (GST) is to eliminate this cascading effect in indirect taxation.

One interesting take here in administration of GST is that invoices must be maintained in each successful stage of transactions by all parties to claim Input Tax Credit (ITC). If any tax is evaded at one stage, the same is captured at the next successive stage. For easy compliance a robust and comprehensive IT system would be the foundation of the GST regime in India. All tax payer services such as registrations, returns, payments etc., are designed to be made available to the taxpayers online.

Benefits of GST regime:

  1. Removal of cascading effect in indirect taxation will ensure seamless tax credits throughout the value chain and across boundaries of States. This would reduce hidden costs of doing business making it more competitive.
  2. GST will ensure that indirect tax rates and structures are uniform across the country, thereby increasing certainty and ease of doing business and making choice of location of business, tax neutral.
  3. With a comprehensive IT system in place for administration of GST making all operations online, tax compliance will be much easier and cost effective.
  4. Business will be immensely benefited by embracing the ‘one nation, one market, one tax’ regime. The existing indirect taxation system created borders within borders where tax laws, tax rates differed from state to state leading to distortions in the allocation of resources and indirect taxes. Unavailability of Tax credits for interstate transactions was a major hindrance in taking business decisions.
  5. The GST regime will facilitate free movement of goods, reduced transportation time and costs with elimination of entry tax and Octroi.
  6. Reduction in transaction costs of doing business would eventually lead to improved competitiveness for trade and industry.
  7. The subsuming of major Central and State taxes in GST, phasing out of Central Sales Tax (CST) and comprehensive set off of input goods and services would reduce the cost of indigenously manufactured goods and services. This will enhance competitiveness of Indian goods and services in the international market giving a boost to Indian exports.
  8. GST rates for most FMCG goods having been kept lower compared to the previous rate should lead to more demand and increased consumption in the sector.

As worked out in the simple illustration provided above it is apparent that indirect taxes accruing to the government under the erstwhile central excise and sales tax regime appear more than what would accrue in the GST regime indicating a loss of revenue to the government. But in real terms there existed wide spread of tax evasion in the central excise and sales tax regime. This evasion is not possible in the GST regime as a robust IT infrastructure is the backbone of the tax administration in this regime. There is an inbuilt mechanism in the design of GST that would incentivise tax compliance by traders. The IT systems in place, by bringing down cost of collection of tax revenues of the Government, will lead to higher revenue efficiency. This gain in efficiency of revenue collection, prevention of leakages and elimination of cascading effect of indirect taxation is expected to provide relief in overall tax burden on consumers. Finally, there is a scenario of the state governments suffering some loss in revenue collection in the GST regime. To overcome this loss, central government has decided to offer 5 year compensation to states.





By: Rajesh Konnur

Life is a bio-psycho-social change. Change occurs in every part of life. Gradual changes in social life process are the main focus of new era. Every individual has to pass through his/ her life stage cycle.

The departure stage in the family phase is when grown children leave home, also known as the period of ‘launching children’. Parents launching their last child go through what is usually known as the “empty nest”.

The Empty Nest as a Twenty First Century Phenomenon:

Most of the theorists, assume that empty nest period is inaugurated when the youngest child turns 18 or when a particular launching event occurs, such as marriage or graduation or leaving home and staying far away from parents due to socio-educational conditions.  In simple way, it refers to as a “letting go” of the children or having them “leave home”.

Empty Nest Syndrome is described as a feeling of grief, loneliness parents may feel when children leave home. It can also result in depression, loss of purpose, feelings of rejection, worry and stress and anxiety over children welfare. Other contributory factors are an unstable or unsatisfactory marriage, sense of self based primarily on identity as a parent or difficulty in accepting a change.

Parents also dealing with stressful life events like menopause, death of a spouse, retirement are more likely to experience the syndrome.

Research studies have shown that parents whose children leave home do not necessarily experience the grief associated with empty nest syndrome, majority experience increased marital happiness and more leisure time.

Common Emotions:

  1. Feeling Sad: Sadness is always a common perception in parents at the beginning of their child’s departure. However, this sadness will be reduced by busy daily life activities and by responsibilities.
  2. Loving Children: Missing loving children during meals is also one of the important emotions of empty nest syndrome.
  3. Anxiety & Denial: Worry, sadness, skipping meals is all symptoms of empty nest syndrome.

Coping with Empty Nest Syndrome:

Rediscover the love of your life:

This period can be challenging if a couple discovers that there are problems with their relationship they have not faced because having children around helped to cement their relationship. It can also be that after being parents for so long, they have forgotten how to be lovers. This is a time to talk honestly & openly about the direction of the relationship together & decide what happens next.

If the children were the only bonding force in your marriage, you both may need to work on your own relationship to restore what has been neglected.

Remember the past and look forward to the future:

Develop the mindset that you expect your spouse to have changed somewhat. You have both aged since meeting and been through many experiences that you did not envisage when you first fell in love. With time, people become clever about their likes, dislikes, preferences etc. Trying to see this as an opportunity to discover each other’s “new” selves can be a fruitful way to revive a flagging relationship.

Allow time for your relationship to blossom anew. Sometimes, none of this will patch up the reality that you’ve grown apart. If you realize that your relationship is beyond repair, talk it through, seek report at counseling clinics, pray together, and serve the Lord and His people together.

Talk to your child. Your child is probably feeling anxious and uncertain about his/ her new life, too. Reassure them of your love and support. If you feel that you have made mistakes or have regrets about your past approach to parenting, talk to your child about these feelings honestly and work to resolve guilty feelings.

Talk to your partner. Be honest about the emotions you are experiencing. Strive to be as sensitive to your spouse’s needs as he or she is to yours.

Respect your child’s new independence. Be proud of his or her achievements and maturity. Aim to be supportive, but give your adult child room to grow and learn from his or her mistakes.

Focus on the future, not the past. While it is important to cherish happy memories, anticipate even happier times to come, such as when you may become a grandparent.

Reconnect with your partner. Now that you are alone again, take advantage of the opportunity to spend time together and “date” again.

Stay active. Get involved in hobbies and activities. Try to exercise regularly and keep fit. Consider volunteering or going back to school to learn new skills. Use your time productively and creatively.

Join an empty nesters support group. Get to know others going through the same transitions you are, and share your stories and feelings.

Stay disciplined with money. With one less person in the house, you may have extra money. If you are not careful, this extra money can be frittered away quickly. Review your savings and investments and take steps to make sure you are on track with your retirement planning.

If feelings of sadness, anxiety or depression persist, contact a professional counselor.