Title: Estimation of starch, dextran, phosphate, silica, alanine, glycine, suplhur and oxalic acid in cane juice using near infrared spectroscopy

By Aamarpali Puri

Dear Readers please check the link to the slide show below.

Presentation on Impurities in sugarcane juice and NIR Spectroscopy


A study on Starbucks: 5 ways of creating an evidence of the quality of service in the outlets and 5 reasons of success

By: Anamitra Roy

Starbucks Corporation is one of the largest chains of coffee outlets in North America. It was founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971. The 5 ways of creating an evidence of service quality in their outlets are:

1) Creation of an Appropriate Environment:

Starbucks designed the ambience of the retail outlets in such a way so that most customers would like to spend some time there. There would be lounges and living areas where customers would just not have coffee, but get a coffee experience. This was one of the greatest assets of Starbucks that helped her to create an evidence of its services.

2) Location:

Most Starbucks outlets would be located near high visibility areas where there would be retail centre, office buildings and university campuses.

3) Trained Employees:

Starbucks employees are given two types of training. One is called “hand skills” and the other is called “soft skills”. The employees are always told to connect to the customers by enthusiastically interacting with them, maintaining eye to eye contacts with them and greeting them.

4) Administration Policies:

One of the administration policies of Starbucks is to ensure a clean environment, product quality and maintain a speed of the service.

5) Innovation:

The policy of bringing innovation was largely successful in creating physical evidence for its services. Starbucks had the policy of introducing at least one drink every holiday season. This meant that there was always something new at Starbucks.

The 5 reasons for the success of Starbucks:

1) Creation of Ambience:

Starbucks as a coffee chain outlet did not aim at selling coffee. It believed in selling a coffee experience. The ambience in Starbucks is such that the customer can do a lot of things over a cup of coffee … lounge, live and enjoy it.

2) HR and Administrative Policies:

Maintenance of a clean environment, speedy service, ensuring customer satisfaction through enthusiastic interactions and greeting them are some of the attributes of the administrative policies of Starbucks that was largely responsible for the success of this organization.

The people working in Starbucks were given respect. They were called “partners.” There were policies for their promotions (the company encouraged promotion from within itself) and other benefits (like health insurance). Starbucks believed that “partner satisfaction” will lead to customer satisfaction.

3) Location:

Starbucks always opened her retail outlets near busy streets by the side of university campuses, offices and retail outlets. This ensured a very high visibility of the outlets. More importantly, Starbucks outlets are opened in places where customers are available who have the mentality of spending time on a cup of coffee. For example, one of the favorite locations of Starbucks is to open coffee outlets near university campuses where students are available who are expected to visit the coffee outlets in groups and spend time on a cup of coffee in between classes.

4) Innovations and Product Quality:

Constant innovations (for eg. Introduction of at least one drink per holiday season) were also responsible for the success of Starbucks.

Starbucks prided herself on serving the customers the highest quality coffee in the world, from Africa, Central and South America, and Asia-Pacific regions.

5) Handling Competition:

Starbucks believed that it was far from reaching saturation in many existing markets.

There were a lot of competitors of this organization which depended on one strength (like Caribou Coffee emphasized on environment, Peet’s Coffee & Tea depended on quality of the coffee). Starbucks’ success in handling the competitors was that it had all the strengths in it to compete with others.

About the Author:

Mr Anamitra Roy is B.Com. Hons. (C.U., India), Certified Financial Accountant (CMC, India), DFA(CMC, India), PGDBF (HSIS India, India), Certified Financial Accountant(GLOBSYN Skills, India), GPBL (TASMAC, India & University of Wales, United Kingdom).


“The Diary of a Greening Volunteer”


By: Krishnakumar, V.G

 It was a stunning experience to me, while I was selected for the Forest Rangers training at Southern Forest Ranger’s College, Coimbatore in 1981. I belong to the coastal area of Kerala, which has the canopy of only coconut palms and jungles formed by the weeds like Eupatorium etc. The only wildlife I could get familiarized was the caparisoned elephants paraded during the annual festival of our temple.

The 365 days training was a turning point of my life, not only of mine, but also of the 150 forest ranger trainees from the whole of India. The most interesting session was of the Social Forestry, which was just booming in our country at that time. Our instructor Late Shri S. Viswanathan, (Asst. Conservator of Forests, Tamil Nadu Forest Department) took us to the amazing work of greening barren lands through his magical words.

At that time, the practice of Social Forestry scheme was just on the startup stage. The alarming stage of vast deforestation and plundering of forest wealth on inadequate conservation laws was telling on the ecology of the nation. Felling of trees degraded the land and perennial rivers and hydroelectric dams were filled with eroded soil leading to the death of those boons of nature which were the water suppliers and powerhouses of the nation.

If those deforested areas were left as such, it would lead to further soil erosion and global warming would also be increased. So the long vision authorities decided to regreen those areas by planting suitable tree species. Their vision was to ensure the following:

  1. Protecting the nature.
  2. Prevention of soil erosion.
  3. Restoration of flora.
  4. Thereby increasing the micro and macro fauna.
  5. Increasing rural employment potential.
  6. Increasing the fuelwood availability.

World Bank has generously funded the noble scheme. Unfortunately, some of the corrupt bureaucrats misused the scheme to siphon the money to their pockets through illegal means, including false statements of developing plantations in unknown areas. More than 1 lakh forest officials were penalized for the corrupt practices under social forestry scheme in various states.

Now, let me come to my personal experience as a greenery man. While I was working in the raw material depot of the paper mill, I could find vast areas of unutilized stretches of land in the yard in the form of slopes and other such locations. During the monsoon period, I could find that reeds (a variety of bamboo) in the stacks used to sprout with profuse roots. I collected those sproutings with roots and planted in selected areas where water was available. I used the help of contract workers to protect those plantings from climbers. After one year almost all of the plantings were established.

It was in 1996, I was appointed as the first officer of our farm forestry scheme- promotion of various pulpwoods including bamboos in the marginal farmer’s land through NGOs. As a pilot scheme, the target was only 10,000 numbers of seedlings. In that scheme, we included saplings of jack, mango and gooseberry too to get the response of the public. Our modus operandi was simple. Selected NGOs were asked to inform us their requirement of saplings of eucalyptus, acacia, mangium, reeds, casuarina, albizia, bamboos, mango, jack and gooseberry. The demand was hefty. The available stock was distributed to the selected NGOs in proportion to their demand. The distribution was confined to the non-forest district of Kerala, i.e., Alappuzha district. 21 organizations took part. It was an interesting feature that there were more beneficiaries for pulpwood saplings than for fruit bearing species like jack, mango etc.! People need only those economically important species!

After the distribution, we conducted the post distribution survey on the survival of the distributed saplings. Results were encouraging. The landowners were happy to see the responsible officials visiting their land to see the planted saplings.

The results were reflected in the next year’s program. Quantity was increased. In order to make the public aware on the raising of arboreal nursery, we selected few NGOs in hamlets and trained them. Different species need different pre-sowing treatments, which were Greek to them! For example, seeds of acacia species need treatment like scarification in light acid or putting the seeds in boiling water followed by cooling down for 12 hours. Fearing the failure of the treatment or ignorance of the fact, it was my duty to give those NGOs the treated seeds, courtesy to my late mother and aunty who helped me in those occasions! Even after the sowing and sprouting of these seeds, workers of NGOs were reluctant to believe me as the broad leaves (phyllodes) did not emerge and only primary leaves had emerged. Only after the emergence of the phyllodes, they got relieved off the tensions. There are other common trees like gooseberry which need pre-sowing treatments. The seed of gooseberry will not germinate, if it is dibbled. Seeds of gooseberry have thick seed coat. Hence, the seeds will be applied with a light application of kerosene and light flame will be ignited and immediately put off. If these treated seeds are sown, new saplings of gooseberry can be developed.

During my tenure as the farm forestry officer of Hindustan Newsprint Limited, I experimented with the plantings in those land masses which was branded as unproductive or useless like swamps, pure silica sand patches etc. Selection of ideal species for the location, adopting appropriate planting techniques including mound planting in swampy areas helped to green at least few patches.

While distributing new species, I used to plant at least 2 to 3 numbers of such saplings in my land to note the growth rate and other features. This helped to foresee the growth of distributed saplings in distant places.

The role of an employee changes as per the needs of his employer and being an employee my role also got changed after 3 years. But again an opportunity came in the form of transfer to North East unit as the head of Tissue Culture Unit of that mill. There also, the swampy area of about 0.5 Ha of land was planted with different varieties of bamboos to develop a bamboo setum so that ideal species can be selected by interested farmers for farming.

In my free times at home, we used to cultivate different vegetables which give immense pleasure to mind and body as well a feeling of self-reliance for food.

Yes, greening is a pleasure giving job, both to self and to society.

About Author: Well experienced Forestry personnel in all fields of forestry in paper industry. Raising plantations of pulpwood like eucalyptus, acacia, bamboo etc. Experience in Tissue Culture laboratory (from the installation to production stage), extraction works and storage. Well experienced in public activities like Farm forestry. His Specialties: Forestry- plantation, tissue culture, extraction and community forestry.

Foundation & Building Construction

Compiled by: Aamarpali Puri

  1. Building Planning :

Site Selection : Before any building is planned and constructed, site selection is very important and the following points should be considered :

i) Soil at the site should not be made up type. Due to settlement and collapse, cracks may developed in the building.

ii) Site should not be very much undulating.

iii)   General slope of the site, should be away from site, which facilitate the drainage of building.

iv) Water supply mains, electric lines, telephone lines, drainage sewers etc. should be very near to the site, which helps in costing.

v) Ground water table of the site, should not very high.

vi) In selection of residential building, the school, hospital, railway station, market etc. should be nearing eite.

vii) Building site should not be selected in depression.

viii) Should be in elevated site.

ix) Good foundation soil should be available.

x) Should be away from the busy roads, hospital, school, college building should be away from busy area.

xi) Residential buildings should not be near work slops, factories, for noise.

xii) Site at sea shore is good but metallic fittings are liable to be corroded.

xiii) The site, near usy big picture like building, an to be avoided, it will not look good.

2. Planning of a building-Principles.

  The basic principles of dwelling houses are as follows :

i) Aspect

ii) Prospect

iii)   Furniture requiring

iv) Roominess

v) Grouping

vi) Circulation

vii) Privacy

viii) Sanitation

ix) Elegance

x) Economy

xi) Flexibility

  1. Aspect : Aspect is actually positioning of the rooms in a building in such a way that occupant would enjoy the natural comforts to the maximum possible extent.
  2. Prospect : Prospect is found by the views desired from certain rooms of the house.
  3. Furniture requirement : It is essential item for living room, drawing room, kitchen, class room, laboratory room, operation theatre, office room etc. However, it is better to prepare a sketch plan, indicating furniture positions, so that doors, windows and circulation space can be planned.
  4. Roominess : Without disturbing/changing the plan, some spaces like cup-boards, lofts, wooden shelves etc. an to be provided. The rooms having its length twice the width is objectionable.
  5. Grouping : Grouping means setting different rooms of a building according to their inter-relationships. The rooms are arranged in the layout in proper correlation of their functions and due proximity with each other. For instance, in a residential building, dinning room should be close to kitchen. At the same twice kitchen should be kept away from main living room, to avoid smoke and smell.
  6. Circulation : Passages, corridors, halls, and lobbies, serve the purpose of horizontal circulation, where as stairs serve the purpose of vertical circulation. Circulation between rooms of the same floor is known as horizontal circulation, whereas circulation among various floors is known as vertical circulation.
  7. Privacy : Unless privacy is secured all the principles of planning of a building are bound to fail, particularly in case of residential buildings. Privacy may be from one part to other of the same building or it way be privacy as a whole from neighbouring buildings, public streets or by ways. The internal privacy means screening interior of one room from other room. Toilet rooms, lavatories bath rooms, bed room, w.c., urinals require absolute privacy.
  8. Sanitation : Sanitation is not only included w.c., urinals, both rooms, wash basins, sinks, but also lighting & ventilations.
  9. Elegance : The over-all effect-produced by elevation and general layout of the plan to known as alegance. It is better if elevation is developed first and then plan is adjusted according to the elevation. A building located in a depression will always give depressed elegance, when as building located on an elevated spot gives impressive appearance.
  10. Economy : The economy may not be a principle of planning, but definitely a factor effecting it. It is to be kept in mind that economy should not effect the utility and strength of the structure.
  11. Flexibility : Flexibility means planning the rooms in such a way which though originally designed for a specific purpose, may be used for other purpose also.

The role of Religion in Politics

By: Prapanna Lahiri

The relation between religion and politics has always been an important theme in political philosophy. Religion is the driving force shaping the values and beliefs of individuals who make a society. Historically, this relationship between religion and society manifesting in the State has taken a variety of forms from the state dominating religion to religion dominating the state and the more recent attempts to separate them in the modern world.

In ancient Egypt the political ruler was considered the highest religious leader with divine powers. The ancient Jewish tradition avowed a strict state monotheism that ruthlessly suppressed non-Israelite beliefs. The Chinese sovereign was historically considered the Son of Heaven. In Tibet, monasteries and monks held considerable political power.

In the West since the days of Constantine the various arrangements for religion in a society’s political life has been central to shaping of political thought. Following the Protestant Reformation, European societies struggled with finding the exact roles for the church and the state in each other’s domain. In every European nation, barring those Communist days of a secular ideology trying to suppress traditional faiths in Soviet Russia and Eastern Europe, the church and the state stayed intertwined in some way or another depending on a nation’s history and culture.

Progress towards liberal concept of toleration: This concept centres on existence of a state that ensures religious freedom of people and treats all religions equally. Historically, the ancient Indian Emperor Ashoka (304-232 B.C.E.) being an early practitioner of this principle honoured all sects. Cyrus, the Great the founder of the Persian Empire had the first distinction of declaring official grant of toleration to non-state religions. The politics of Europe in the middle Ages witnessed a continuous conflict between the church and the state owing to frequent encroachment in each other’s realm giving rise to disputes over areas of authority. In the evolving Christendom the relationship between Christianity and secular authority was crystallised by the phrase attributed to Jesus in the gospel “Render unto Caesar what is Caesar’s, and unto God the things that are God’s,” John Locke (1632–1704), the influential English liberal political philosopher championed the inherent freedom of men and strongly upheld that the ruler should not coerce people to believe in what the ruler believed to be true religion, nor should churches exercise coercion over their members. These thoughts played a seminal role in charting the history of the church and state during both the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and later in the American Revolution. Thomas Jefferson’s Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786) is considered a pioneering model for modern religious freedom legislation. This statute as a statement about freedom of conscience and the principle of separation of church and the state was a landmark precursor of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution that provides protections for religious freedom. The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789) which was one of the basic charters of human liberties guided by inspiration of the French Revolution also enshrined Freedom of Religion (Article 10).

Some variations on relationship between church and state in contemporary Europe are:

  1. Pope the head of the Catholic Church exercisesex officio supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power over the theocratic State of Vatican City.
  2. Germany,Austria, and some Eastern European nations support some large religions.
  3. In England, the Government supports the church through taxes and exercises directions over it. The constitutional monarch heads the Church of England and the Prime Minister selects Archbishop of Canterbury. Similarly in Norway, the King is also the leader of the state church and more than half of the members of the Norwegian Council of State are members of the state church.

The Islamic world: Since Islamic code (Shari’ah) guides an ideal Islamic state, theoretically it does not distinguish between the state and the religion.  However, in practice governments in Islamic countries evidence a wide spectrum of attitude defining the relationship between the faith and the state based on the governance model:

  1. Caliphate in Sunni Islam: The Caliph heads the state drawing lineage from Muhammad. No such state exists today but some extremist organisations like the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria and Al Qaeda profess to establish such dispensation.
  2. Velayat-e faqi: The Islamic Republic of Iran follows a version of this concept where an Islamic jurist or faqih as the supreme spiritual leader sits atop the power structure of the republic also comprising the executive, judiciary and legislature.    
  3. The Republic of Turkey has a tradition of secularism despite some weakening in recent years. Turkey abandoned Islamic law adopting Italian penal code in 1926.
  4. TheConstitution of Indonesia (a Muslim majority country) does not designate a state religion and guarantees the freedom of practice of other religions and beliefs.

In India: In a Multi cultural and Multi religious country like India the relationship of the state with religion is of profound importance especially since the British colonists divided the country into Pakistan and India on the basis of the religion of the population of the undivided nation. Pakistan declared itself a religious state and India adopted a secular constitution. Hindus form the majority (nearly 80%), the Muslims the next minority group forming 14% overall, with concentration at particular regions of up to more than 50% and others forming the rest. The democratic constitution adopted, follows a ‘first past the post’ electoral system resulting in some professedly secular political formations trying to extract Muslim support, as easy road to political power, by constructing insecurity in them forcing them to exercise block voting in their favour. This in itself resulted in mixing politics with religion. This sometimes evoked reactions in the majority community creating social strife.

It is evident from the above discussion that secularism is advancing rapidly in modern times in many of the world’s societies. This trend is obviously connected with the process of economic development. Nevertheless, religion continues to be an important political phenomenon throughout the world, for various reasons.





Note*: The view expressed in the article are solely those of the author and do not in any way represents the views of CRF.


The social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students

Karendra Devroop*

*School of Music, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Internal Box 124, Potchefstroom 2520, South Africa.


Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various psychological and sociological variables. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful were conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. The purpose of this study was to investigate the social-emotional impact of instrumental music instruction on disadvantaged South African students. The two specific questions addressed in this study were (1) what impact did instrumental music instruction have on student’s self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance and (2) do any relationships exist between instrumental music instruction and the variables under investigation? The results indicated that there were generally increased levels of self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance after participation in an instrumental music programme. There was also an increase in subject’s optimism and sense of happiness. There were moderate to moderately strong positive relationships between participation in instrumental music and self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance.

Keywords: disadvantaged students; instrumental music performance; social emotional impact.

The role of the arts in education

Several researchers and leading international organisations suggest that the arts play a critical role in the development of youth. UNESCO, one of the champions of policy initiatives on culture and education, appealed to arts organisations and practitioners to foster the development of arts education in the UNESCO Road Map for Arts Education (UNESCO 2006). Several researchers have indicated that involvement in the arts has been associated with improved scores in math and reading and elevated verbal, cognitive and spatial reasoning skills (Burton, Horowitz, and Abeles 1999). Researchers (Brown, Benedett, and Armistead 2010) have also indicated that the arts provide a suitable avenue for school readiness skills for children from diverse backgrounds.

The arts have been shown to play a critical role in the development of at-risk children and those facing poverty-related stressors. It has been suggested that the arts could provide regulation of emotions and behaviour for students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds while increasing their cultural awareness through education (Brown, Benedett, and Armistead 2010). The arts could in essence become a focal point for early intervention of developmental deficiencies in children facing economic and other social challenges including lack of parental support, drug abuse and crime.

The importance of music in the educational curriculum

Within the literature there exists a large volume of research studies attesting to the positive relationships between studying music and various social-emotional variables (Costa-Giomi 1999; Fitzpatrick 2006; Marjoribanks and Mboya 2004; Michel and Farrell 1973; North, Hargreaves, and O’Neill 2000; Taetle 1999; Trusty and Oliva 1994; Young 1975). Asmus (2005) conducted an intensive literature review of approximately 270 electronic databases with the aim of identifying research studies that investigated the impact of music education on various samples. He categorized the research studies into three large all-encompassing groups that investigated specific variables. These included: (1) home environment and learning (socio-economic status, enrichment, parental attitude, genetics, motivation, attitude, creativity, intellectual development and confidence), (2) school (grades, motivation, student learning, self-esteem, social status and language development) and (3) community (social development, emotional development, behaviour, self-expression and social skills). In the majority of these studies, positive relationships were established between studying music and the variables under investigation. In some studies, researchers were able to identify specific variables that accounted for as much as 80% of the variance in learning. Several researchers have provided evidence of strong positive correlations between instrumental music performance and specific social-emotional constructs. These include but are not limited to self-esteem, self-discipline, perseverance, motivation, leadership, attitude and cooperation (Adderley, Kennedy, and Berz 2003; Costa-Giomi 2004; Hietolahti and Kalliopuska 1990; Lillemyr 1983; McDowell 2002; MENC 2009; Scott 1992; Zehr 2003). Additionally researchers (Fitzpatrick 2006; Young 1975) have identified strong positive relationships between music and brain activity (cognition, spatial temporal reasoning and communication), music and the development of fine motor skills and music and improved test scores. Given the abundance of research findings in this area, it can be argued that studying a musical instrument positively impacts the development of various psychological and sociological skills. A close examination of these studies reveals that only a handful was conducted on disadvantaged populations. Accordingly, it remains unclear to what extent these findings hold true for disadvantaged students. According to Young (1975), disadvantaged students have less musical ability than their counterparts at the point of which they enter school. He further suggests that this disparity becomes greater as they progress through school due to differences in learning rate. However, Gordon (1970) hypothesises that disadvantaged students would achieve the same academic standards if they were afforded the same educational opportunities as their counterparts. According to Gordon, achievement levels of disadvantaged students and their counterparts may be different but their aptitude is essentially the same. He validated this hypothesis in a series of studies that followed over the past three decades.

The current status of music education in South Africa

The current music education environment in the public school system in South Africa is facing tremendous challenges. Since 1994, many public school music programmes have been abolished for reasons ranging from: a greater focus on math and science, lack of facilities, curriculum constraints, lack of suitably qualified teachers and little to no financial resources to support music programmes. A very small number of schools around the country offer instrumental music instruction due primarily to a lack of human and financial resources. The vocal tradition continues to sustain itself with many schools offering a school choir as the only form of exposure to music. String, wind and percussion programmes are practically non existent in most public schools. Many schools face challenges other than the lack of music education programmes. These included poor and deteriorating facilities, lack of financial resources, lack of qualified teachers and overcrowding. Given the tremendous challenges facing most schools in the country, it may be understandable why so few music programmes exist. The need for studies focusing on the benefits of studying music in South Africa is of vital importance given the large population of economically disadvantaged students within the country. The benefits of research studies investigating the effect of music instruction on disadvantaged South African youth could serve a dual purpose: (1) justifying the need for music instruction within the public school system and the expansion of current offerings within the arts and (2) investigating a potentially novel mechanism for addressing the learning disparity between disadvantaged youth and their counterparts. The latter would be justified if the findings from such studies were to substantiate the current findings in the literature. The current study is the second in a series of studies addressing the impact of instrumental music instruction on disadvantaged South African youth. In a previous study by this researcher (Devroop 2009), the effects of instrumental music instruction on the career plans of disadvantaged South African youth were investigated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the social-emotional impact of instrumental music performance on economically disadvantaged South African students. The two specific questions addressed in this study were (1) what impact did instrumental music performance have on student’s self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance? and (2) do any relationships exist between instrumental music performance and the variables under investigation?

The South African Music Outreach Project

This study was conducted in conjunction with the South African Musical Outreach Project (SAMOP). The SAMOP is an international outreach project that creates sustainable music programmes in the form of performing instrumental ensembles (concert bands) at disadvantaged public schools in South Africa. Over the past four years, the SAMOP has created instrumental music ensembles comprising approximately 45 musicians each via grants and donations of musical instruments from the USA. The project was founded by Dr Karendra Devroop in 2007 and is administered in conjunction with faculty from North-West University (Potchefstroom campus), Tshwane University of Technology and the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg campus). The goal of the SAMOP is to establish instrumental music ensembles specifically wind ensembles for economically disadvantaged students at public schools in South Africa. The majority of students who benefit from the SAMOP have no prior experience studying or performing music. The majority of students come to the programme with no experience or training in music. Due to the severe economic and social challenges that face these students, many cannot afford a musical instrument. Educationally the SAMOP approaches music making in a large ensemble setting thereby trying to accommodate as many students as possible. The ensembles established by the SAMOP are modelled on the typical US middle and high school concert band which comprise woodwind, brass and percussion instruments. Students study the fundamentals of wind performance while developing their instrumental proficiency and playing through various wind literature. Instruction generally occurs one to two times per week in a ‘full band’ setting and also once a week in sectional rehearsals. The band director at each school is the primary instructor and is occasionally assisted by a part time instructor. To date the SAMOP has positively affected hundreds of students from elementary to high school and more recently to university-level students. In addition to the service component of the SAMOP, there exists a research component in which faculty and students conduct individual and collaborative interdisciplinary research studies. To date several studies (Bogdanov 2009; Devroop 2008, 2009; Getz et al. 2012; Sandifer 2008) have been published and presented at conferences in the US, UK and South Africa. The current study is the second in a series of longitudinal studies aimed at addressing the efficacy of the intervention.


Subjects for this study (N_84) consisted of students from the two instrumental ensembles established by the SAMOP in the Kwazulu-Natal province during 2008 and 2009. Each ensemble consisted of approximately 42 students who had never played a musical instrument before. Students in the two ensembles had participated in the SAMOP project for approximately two years. Prior to participating in the SAMOP project, none of the students could read music and the majority had never been exposed to a musical instrument. Over 95% of the students had never performed in a music ensemble and this was their very first formal instruction and exposure to an instrumental music ensemble. The ensembles were similar to concert bands that currently exist in US middle and high schools and included flutes, clarinets, saxophones, trumpets, trombones and percussion instruments. The average age for subjects within the sample was 13 years (M_13.65, SD_0.77) with a range of 12_16 years. All subjects were in the eighth grade. There was a greater number of females (62%) compared to males (38%). Racial distribution revealed that 76% of the sample was comprised of Black/African students followed by 19% of Coloured and 4% of Indian students. White/Caucasian students accounted for a little less than 1% of the total sample. Due to the high percentage of orphaned and homeless children in South Africa, subjects were required to provide information on their family and home environment. Approximately 38% of the total group indicated that they lived with both parents at home. A quarter of the total sample (25%) indicated that one or both parents were deceased and 42% indicated that they lived with a single parent or guardian. Many students were impacted by AIDS, crime and poverty and lacked parental supervision. Due to the lack of parental supervision, many students were drawn into drugs and gangs from a very young age. Approximately 20% of respondents indicated that they lived with someone other than a parent or guardian. School administrators were asked to provide insight into this finding and the general consensus was that the majority of these students were classified as ‘head of household’. In essence, these students lived by themselves while attempting to provide a stable living environment for their younger siblings. Administrators cited the death of parents due to HIV/AIDS, an over-burdening of the government social support infrastructure and the need for parents to work in other parts of the country in order to sustain an income as the primary reasons for the lack of parental supervision of these students. A survey instrument was developed specifically for this study after review of surveys conducted on similar populations in other countries. Items on the questionnaire were measured on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from ‘strongly disagree’ to ‘strongly agree’. Subjects were required to respond to a series of statements such as ‘participation in band has made me feel happier’ and ‘participation in band makes me feel like I can be a leader’. Each of the constructs (self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance) was measured by obtaining a composite score of several sub-questions and/or statements. This was consistent with the manner in which previous researchers measured such constructs. Administration of the questionnaire was done by the researcher in a joint rehearsal of both ensembles. This ensured that all participants were available to complete the questionnaire, resulting in a 100% return rate. Prior to administration, the questionnaire was submitted for review to an expert familiar with questionnaire construction to ensure that content was appropriate for the target group. The questionnaire was revised for content and language and subsequently administered to the target group. Completed questionnaires were coded and entered into a statistical database (SPSS 16.0) for analysis. All information remained confidential and were stored on the investigator’s personal computer. The data were analysed using (1) descriptive statistics that included frequencies, percentages, means and standard deviations and (2) correlational statistics that included Pearson’s r and Spearman’s Rho. Correlation statistics measure relationships between variables such that changes in one variable are generally accompanied by similar changes in the correlated variable.


The first question that this study sought to answer was the impact of instrumental music performance on student’s self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance. These variables were included by researchers in several prior studies on similar populations. Accordingly, they were included in the current study. Table 1 presents the composite mean scores of these variables. Changes in self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance were measured by asking students to respond to a series of questions that related to each of the constructs.

Table 1. Mean distribution of change in self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance.

Mean Standard deviation
Self-esteem 4.45 0.692
Optimism 4.56 0.691
Happiness 4.43 0.921
Perseverance 4.40 0.739

Subjects were required to respond to questions on a 5-point Likert scale, with lower scores indicating that they strongly disagreed with the statement and higher scores indicating they strongly agreed with the statement. The results indicated that there were generally increased levels of self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance after participation in the instrumental music programme. Mean scores ranged from 4.43 to 4.56 for the four main constructs. Considering that mean scores could range from 1 to 5, it can be deduced that the mean scores were extremely high thereby alluding to the notion that students’ participation in instrumental music had positively impacted their self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance. Interpretation of mean scores was consistent with model surveys upon which the current survey was based, such that higher mean scores reflected increased levels and vice versa. Accordingly, a mean score of 4.45 (range 1_5) on self-esteem suggested that there was an increase in student’s self-esteem after participation in instrumental music instruction. Similarly, there was an increase in subject’s optimism and sense of happiness with mean scores at 4.56 and 4.43, respectively. The final construct attempted to measure perseverance. Within the literature there exists a number of studies that suggest confidence levels increase when individuals persevere and succeed at challenges that are presented to them. This in turn motivates individuals to persevere at greater challenges in life due to their success with overcoming smaller challenges. The researcher included this construct in an effort to measure whether the perseverance that students exhibited in this environment would transfer to other greater challenges in life, given that these students faced daunting challenges on a daily basis. Subjects were asked questions such as ‘having learned to play an instrument, how likely are you to succeed at other challenges in life?’ A mean score of 4.40 was obtained on this item with a range of 1_5 where higher scores reflected greater perseverance. The high composite mean score suggested that students felt more inclined to persevere at some of the challenges they face on a daily basis due to overcoming the challenge of learning to play a musical instrument and function collaboratively within a performing ensemble. The results from this series of analyses affirm that student’s participation in instrumental music performance positively impacted their self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance. The mean scores for these variables suggest that students ‘agreed’ to ‘strongly agreed’ that their participation in instrumental music performance positively impacted their self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance. To address the second research question, a series of analyses were conducted to determine the possible relationships between student’s participation in instrumental music performance and the four constructs under investigation. To determine potential relationships between variables, correlation statistics were utilised. These statistics generally provide the strength (on a range of _1 to _1) and direction (positive or negative) of the relationships such that changes in one variable are generally accompanied by similar changes in the correlated variable. The correlation matrix in Table 2 indicates that there were moderate to moderately strong positive relationships between participation in instrumental music and self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance. The strongest relationship (0.50) existed between participation in music and sense of happiness, followed by participation in music and perseverance (0.48) and participation in music and optimism (0.47). The weakest relationship was identified between participation in music and self-esteem (0.38). Although this relationship would be classified as small to moderate in size, the relationship remained positive. It is important to note that there were no negative relationships between variables. The fact that all of the relationships (albeit some were small) were positive indicates that the overall impact of students’ participation in instrumental music performance had a positive effect on their self-esteem, optimism, sense of happiness and perseverance. One can infer that continued participation in instrumental music performance would ultimately strengthen and enhance these social-emotional constructs due to the positive relationships between these constructs and students’ participation in instrumental music performance. The analysis of relationships between variables excluding participation in music revealed the strongest relationship between happiness and optimism (0.56) and the weakest relationship between self-esteem and perseverance (0.28). Almost all relationships were statistically significant at the 0.01 alpha, except the relationship between self-esteem and perseverance which was statistically significant at the 0.05 alpha level.


The results from this study need to be analysed and interpreted with caution due to the relatively small number of studies conducted in this area in South Africa. Furthermore, sample size and sample selection does not allow for generalisations to the entire population of disadvantaged students within the country. However, the results do provide baseline data and initial insight into this unique yet understudied group.

The results from this study provide evidence that self-esteem, optimism, happiness and perseverance increased after participation in the instrumental programme. This finding is validated in the literature with several researchers substantiating these findings in previous studies. Costa-Giomi (2004) and Hietolahti and Kalliopuska (1990) found increases in self-esteem in studies that focused on the effect of instrumental music instruction on young children. These studies also found positive correlations between music and self-esteem, thereby validating the positive correlation between music and self-esteem in this study. Increases in levels of happiness and a positive correlation between participation in music and happiness have been identified in previous research studies. In a recent study that investigated the relationships between musical experiences of religious musicians and happiness, researchers Hills and Argyle (1998) established increased levels of happiness and a correlation between music and happiness. The findings by Hills and Argyle lend credibility to the findings from the current study. While the findings from the current study may be justified, the issue of greater importance is the applicability of the findings to the current sample and potentially to the broader population of students within the country. Given the circumstances that disadvantaged South African youth face on a daily basis including poverty, crime, hunger and lack of a stable home social environment, the importance of elevating students’ levels of happiness cannot be overstated. Researchers have found that increased levels of happiness tend to impact psychological health, thereby potentially impacting the general psychological well-being of the individual. The ramifications of all South African youth having good psychological health could have far-reaching consequences for the nation as a whole.Relationships between participation in music, optimism and perseverance have not been widely studied. In fact a very small number of studies were found to address these issues. Optimism and perseverance were included in this study due to their importance to the population under investigation. In research studies unrelated to music but based on South African youth, researchers (Mathombela 1997; Watson et al. 1997) have alluded to the importance of investigating optimism and perseverance of disadvantaged South African youth. Accordingly, these variables were included in this study. Results indicated that mean scores were higher for optimism and perseverance after participation in the instrumental music programme. In fact the mean score for optimism was the highest when viewed in relation to the other variables under investigation. Correlations between participation in music and optimism and perseverance were moderately strong and positive. These findings were supported in studies by Scott (1992) and Priest (2006) who found higher levels of optimism and perseverance after participation in music.Similar to the variable happiness, increases in optimism and perseverance need to be viewed in light of the broader social-emotional development of economically disadvantaged South African youth. With high rates of temporary withdrawal, grade repetition and dropout within the public school system in South Africa, increased levels of optimism and perseverance become pivotal building blocks to a psychologically and socially balanced and healthy generation of youth. The findings from this study indicate that participation in music may play a vital role in addressing these issues. Subsequent research would need to be conducted to validate this claim. Irrespective of the potential social-emotional benefits to studying music, the need to engage in instrumental music instruction and performance is justified as an entity within itself.

 Notes on contributor

Dr. Karendra Devroop is Professor of Music and Director of the School of Music and Conservatory at North-West University in South Africa. His primary area of research is on the career development of amateur and professional musicians. He has published and presented his research in several countries including the US, Canada, Mexico, UK, Italy, Germany, Taiwan, Thailand and South Africa. In addition to his research and teaching, he is a professional jazz saxophonist with a string of recordings and performances at several international jazz festivals.


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Note* This is reprint article .

It has been published earlier with Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK ISSN 1461-3808 print/ISSN 1469-9893 online, # 2012 Taylor & Francis, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14613808.2012.685456. http://www.tandfonline.com.


Amandeep Kaur

Assistant Professor, Khalsa College of Nursing, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

INTRODUCTION: In industrialized countries every fourth death is caused by cancer. Scarcely any family or circle of acquaintance is spared the sad fate of watching while a loved one slowly succumbs to this illness. Those who have faced the knowledge that their body is carrying a tumor which is threatening to spread may well ask: what can I expect from the future? Must I give in without a fight or are there practical and promising methods for tackling the situation? Not all health problems are avoidable, but you have more control over your health than you may think. Research shows that a large percentage of cancer-related deaths are directly linked to lifestyle choices such as smoking, drinking, a lack of exercise, and an unhealthy diet. Therefore nutrition counseling is required to maintain health of the client which includes; diet, exercise & activity, behavior modification and managing acute side effects.

DEFINITION: Nutrition counseling is an ongoing process in which a health professional, usually a registered dietitian, works with an individual to assess his or her usual dietary intake and identify areas where change is needed.


  1. External and internal factors
  2. Cancer related factors
  3. Treatment related factors
  4. External and internal factors: External factors include the environmental and social contexts within which an individual exists. These contexts encompass the overall health of the country’s economy, which has an impact on transportation, access to food shopping, availability of different nutrients, adequacy of housing and food preparation facilities, and availability of programs that offer food assistance. Environmental factors influence the individual, who possesses cultural beliefs and attitudes about nutrition and eating behaviors. Internal factors that influence a person’s tendency to develop nutritional deficiencies include age, body image, past history of food fads or eating disorders, social support, educational level, alcohol or tobacco intake, and presence of co morbid diseases. Much more research in this area is needed before individuals at risk can be reliably identified.
  5. Cancer-related factors: The type of cancer affects the probability of malnutrition. Individuals with breast cancer or leukemia are at low risk, whereas 31% to 48% of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma have significant weight loss. Moreover, unfavorable histologies are correlated with higher weight loss. Individuals with cancers of the aerodigestive (upper respiratory and digestive) and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts are at special risk for under nutrition from mechanical obstruction and physiological dysfunction due to local tumor compression. Host responses to the cancer and the cancer itself cause changes in metabolism and energy needs and may explain why those individuals with advanced disease are more likely to have nutritional problems.
  6. Treatment related factors: All cancer therapies have the potential to cause nutritional deficiency. The magnitude of the treatment-related risk depends on the area of treatment, type of treatment, number of therapeutic modalities used, dosages of therapy used, and length of treatment. Surgery itself alters function. Major aero digestive resections may produce taste alterations, dysgeusia, or impaired swallowing, resulting in reduced intake. Radiation therapy can alter nutritional status by exerting both systemic and local effects. The extent of the alteration varies with the area of the body being treated, the size of the area being treated, and the duration of treatment. Radiation alters function in the treatment area and poses particular problems for patients with aero digestive or GI cancers. Acute effects are transient and include anorexia, diarrhea, bleeding, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, mucositis, esophagitis, gastritis, xerostomia, and changes in taste. Local desquamation reactions can temporarily increase energy needs. Some of these changes—especially xerostomia, taste changes, and diarrhea—can become chronic. Chemotherapy has a number of direct and indirect effects on nutrition. Direct effects include alteration of the absorptive surface of the GI tract, excitation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone and true vomiting center, and interference with specific metabolic and enzymatic reactions. The majority of chemotherapeutic agents, because of the damage they cause to frequently reproducing cells, alter the length and surface area of intestinal villi. The reduced ability of the gut to absorb nutrients and water production that results can induce diarrhea and malabsorption.


  • Appetite loss
  • Constipation
  • Diarrhea
  • Dry mouth
  • Nausea
  • Sore throat and trouble swallowing
  • Vomiting

 Appetite Loss refers to when you do not want to eat or do not feel like eating very much. One may have appetite loss for just 1 or 2 days, or throughout your course of treatment. Reasons may include: the cancer itself, fatigue, pain, feelings such as stress, fear, depression & anxiety, Cancer treatment side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or changes in how foods taste or smell.

Suggested intervention to improve appetite are: after food choice, increase oral hygiene; avoid sight, smell of food; eat sour foods; eat cold foods; use straw; increase seasoning; use plastic utensils; small amount of alcohol.

Constipation: Constipation occurs when bowel movements become less frequent and stools become hard, dry, and difficult to pass. Client may have painful bowel movements, feel bloated, or have nausea. Chemotherapy, the location of the cancer, pain medication, and other medicines can cause constipation. Increase liquid intake; eat more fiber; eat more fruit; exercise; take laxative; drink hot beverages; add bran to foods.

Diarrhea: Diarrhea occurs when there are frequent bowel movements that may be soft, loose, or watery. Foods and liquids pass through the bowel so quickly that body cannot absorb enough nutrition, vitamins, minerals, and water from them. Diarrhea can be caused by cancer treatments such as radiation therapy to the abdomen or pelvis, chemotherapy, or biological therapy.

Take medicine; increase fluids; drink rehydration fluids; low-residue diet; avoid spices and caffeine, avoid milk products; take soluble-fiber supplement; eat low-fat diet.

Dry Mouth: Dry mouth occurs when there is less saliva than it is used to. This can make it harder to talk, chew, and swallow food. Dry mouth can also change the way food tastes.  Chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the head or neck area can damage the glands that make saliva. Biological therapy and some medicines can also cause dry mouth.

Take prescribed medicine; increase fluids; chew gum; suck on sugarless candy; blend foods; avoid acid, salty, or spicy foods; moisten food, humidify air; apply oil to oral cavity.

Nausea: Nausea occurs when the client feels queasy or sick to stomach. It may be followed by vomiting (throwing up), but not always. Nausea can keep from getting the food and nutrients the client needs. Not everyone gets nausea and those who do may get it right after a treatment or up to 3 days later. Nausea almost always goes away once treatment ends. Nausea can be a side effect of surgery, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and radiation therapy to the abdomen, small intestine, colon, or brain. It can also be caused by certain types of cancer or other illnesses.

Take medicine; alter diet, practice relaxation; listen to music; rest after meals; avoid sight, smell of food; eat cold foods; increase oral hygiene; eat small frequent meals; eat slowly; get fresh air; drink clear liquids; keep busy/distracted; chew food well; drink between meals; eat crackers; breathe through the mouth: eat sour foods; eat low-fat foods; avoid spicy foods; eat sweet foods.

Sore Throat and trouble swallowing: Chemotherapy and radiation therapy to the head and neck can make the lining of your throat inflamed and sore. It may feel as if one has a lump in throat or that chest or throat is burning. There may also be trouble in swallowing. These problems may make it hard to eat and cause weight loss. Some types of chemotherapy and radiation to the head and neck can harm fast-growing cells, such as those in the lining of your throat.

Take prescribed medicine; apply cold (ice) to oral cavity during chemotherapy administration; increase oral hygiene; drink liquids; use soft toothbrush; avoid spicy food; humidify air, avoid use of gravy; use baking soda mouthwash; apply mucosa-adhesive film, avoid alcohol and tobacco; use straws; use supplements; use glutamine.

Vomiting: Vomiting is another way to say “throwing up.”Vomiting may follow nausea and be caused by cancer treatment, food odors, motion, an upset stomach, or bowel gas. Some people vomit when they are in places (such as hospitals) that remind them of cancer. Vomiting, like nausea, can happen right after treatment or 1 or 2 days later. Biological therapy, some types of chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to the abdomen, small intestine, colon, or brain can cause nausea, vomiting, or both. Often, this happens because these treatments harm healthy cells in your digestive tract.

Take prescribed medicine; practice relaxation; rest after meals; drink clear liquids; avoid sight, smell of food; eat slowly; eat crackers; eat cold foods; get fresh air; chew mint candy; eat room-temperature foods; alter diet; increase oral hygiene; eat small frequent meals; eat low-fat diet; avoid spicy foods.


Physical inactivity can lead to muscle atrophy, contributing to loss of cardio respiratory fitness and fatigue. Weight loss that occurs secondary to catabolic activity or cytokine mediated changes in metabolism or corticosteroid use can also contribute significantly to decreased muscle mass. The structure and function of muscle and bone depend on physical activity combined with appropriate nutritional intake and a hormonal milieu that supports anabolism. An evolving body of knowledge supports the role of physical activity in enhancing a number of clinical outcomes. Improvements have been documented in functional capacity, fatigue, medication requirements, self-esteem, and mood, sense of control and well-being, and immunological parameters. Physical activities might include walking programs, stretching, and use of resistance bands, swimming, cycling, or dancing, as tolerated.


Verbal counseling can be extremely effective in assisting patients to choose calorie-dense foods and treat symptoms that interfere with oral intake. A number of self-care actions have been proposed for the treatment of cancer induced nutritional problems. Patient education material commonly includes interventions related to decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, constipation, taste changes, and mucositis. Little research has explored the effectiveness of most of these actions. Of those studies that employed an experimental approach, the majority have included non pharmacological interventions. Much of what is suggested to patients regarding treatment of side effects is not based on scientific evidence or systematic review of patient experience. Moreover, some of the interventions are global in nature. For example, counseling and psycho educational approaches have benefited patients having nausea. However, the actual content of the counseling and psycho educational interventions has not been standardized, so research application is difficult. Much more research is needed before health personnel can accurately predict which intervention will prove effective for a specific patient in a given situation. Patients and their families may identify self-care activities that differ from those commonly suggested in the cancer patient education literature.





By Dr Bhajan Singh Lark

Retd Prof (Chemistry) Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

 While solving problems in science we many a times have to use t– ratios say like sin of certain angle. Naturally we look up for tables of t- ratios. For example while solving problems on X- rays we have to use sin of certain angle in Bragg’s (1) equation

                                         nʎ = 2d sin θ.                                                         … (1)

But the table is not easily available. Here I am suggesting a method to find t- ratios of any angle quite precisely (and that too) without using a table.

This method involves mainly the following trigonometric corollary that:

Sin θ = θ when θ is small (θ is measured in radians)

How small should be the angle for this corollary to hold good.  It will depend upon as to how accurately we need the value of sin θ. Generally we use the value of sin θ correct up to 4 places of decimal which are given usually in mathematical tables(2). Here the procedure to determine the value of sin θ of any angle between 0-90o is explained. 

We know that π radians equal to 180o. Thus the value of a radian in degrees will depend upon the value of π. For accurate value of sin of an angle up to 4 places of decimal the value of π = 3.1416 1.e., taken up to 4 places of decimal works very well.

Understandably if 3.1416 (π) radians  =  180o

Then one radian     = 180o/3.1416 = 57.296o.

Let us check if 1/10th of a radian which is equal to 5.7296rounded to = 5.730 is small or not for the above relation 1 to hold.

Sin of 0.1 radian should be equal to 0.1.  As given by scientific calculator, the value of sin 5.730 is 0.0998 which is the same as given in 4 fig. sin Tables. Thus the present method gives the value of sin 5.73, 0.0002 more than the table value. It is clear form table I that the sin of any angle up to 4o agrees very well with that predicted by the relation 1.Further on this relation predicts a value a little higher than the table or the calculator i.e. real value of sin θ and as the angle becomes higher and higher, the deviation becomes bigger and bigger.

Table 1.  Comparison of predicted values of sin θ with the calculator values

Theta (Degrees)













sin θ = θ  (radians)













Sin θ (Calculator value)














________________ 0.00000











Below I give a method to know the value of sin θ of any angle having θ greater than 4

accurate up to 4 or more places after the decimal.  The method utilizes the following identities.

sin2θ = 2 sinθ cos θ  = 2sin θ (1-sin2 θ)0.5                               (2)

And when θ  is small, i.e. sin θ  = θ   therefore relation 2.

becomes,                   sin2θ = 2 θ (1- θ 2)0.5                                                (3)

sin 3θ = 3sinθ – 4sin3θ =  3θ – 4θ3                                                  (4)

sin(A+B) = sinAcosB+ cosAsinB

=  A(1-B2 )0.5 + B(1-A2 )0.5                                                  (5)

sin(A-B) = sinAcosB- cosAsinB

=  sinA(1-B2 )0.5 + cosA (1-A2 )0.5                                   (6)

 The method involves breaking up the given angle so as to have angles smaller than preferably 3 or 4 degrees so that the sin value is known accurately up to 5 places of decimals and then by the help of any of the identity or of a judicious combination of these gives the sin of the desired angle . Let us find the value of sin 5. It can be arrived as follows,

                              sin 5 = 3sin (5/3) – 4sin3 (5/3)

Angle 5/3 when expressed in radians = 0.01745x 5/3

Thus 3 sin 5/3 degrees = 3x 0.01745x 5/3 =  5×0.01745= 0.08725

Similarly 4sin3 (5/3)   = 4x(0.01745)3  =  0.00002

                          And thus  sin 5 =  0.08725     –  0.00002

= 0.08723 = 0.0872 (up to 4 places of decimals) and this value agrees quite well with the table value of 0.0872 and the calculator value of .08716

Below we give calculated values for sin of certain angles and compare them with the table values and refer to the identity used.

Table 2

Sin angle Identity θ Calculated Sin angle Table value
Sin 4 3 2x 0.017453 0.0698 0.0698
Sin 4 4 4/3(0.01745) 0.0698 0.0698
Sin 5 3 5/2(0.01745) 0.0872 0.0872
Sin 6 4 2x 0.017453 0.1045 0.1045
Sin 7 5 4.3(0.01745) 0.1219 0.1219
Sin 8 4 8/3(0.01745) 0.1392 0.1392
Sin 8.4 4 8.4/3( 0.01745) 0.1461 0.1461
Sin 9 4 9/3(0.01745) 0.1564 0.1564
Sin 10 4 10/3(0.01745) 0.1737 0.1736

 For values of sin θ of angles higher than 10 degrees we can use the values of angles up to 10 degrees as given in table 2 and then use  any of the relations 3-5 given above.

For angles – 30,45,60,90 the values of sin θ are straight forward and for any angle near these angles, any of the standard relations

        sin(A+B) = sinA cosB + cos A sin B

 may be used.     Here (angle) A = 30, 45,60  i.e. the angles for which the  t values  are known and B is a small angle less than 4 for which sin θ = θ. When θ is in radians.

sin θ values for some selected angles are compared with the table values  in Table 3.

Table 3.

Sin θ Break up Calculated value Table value
Sin 32 30 + 2 0.5299 0.5299
Sin 42 45 – 3 0.6691 0.6691

Thus we see that we can calculate quite precisely sin θ of any angle and certainly then we can calculate from that value, the value of any of the other t ratio/s of the given angle by usual trigonometric relations.


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