Foundation & Building Construction

Compiled by: Aamarpali Puri

  1. Building Planning :

Site Selection : Before any building is planned and constructed, site selection is very important and the following points should be considered :

i) Soil at the site should not be made up type. Due to settlement and collapse, cracks may developed in the building.

ii) Site should not be very much undulating.

iii)   General slope of the site, should be away from site, which facilitate the drainage of building.

iv) Water supply mains, electric lines, telephone lines, drainage sewers etc. should be very near to the site, which helps in costing.

v) Ground water table of the site, should not very high.

vi) In selection of residential building, the school, hospital, railway station, market etc. should be nearing eite.

vii) Building site should not be selected in depression.

viii) Should be in elevated site.

ix) Good foundation soil should be available.

x) Should be away from the busy roads, hospital, school, college building should be away from busy area.

xi) Residential buildings should not be near work slops, factories, for noise.

xii) Site at sea shore is good but metallic fittings are liable to be corroded.

xiii) The site, near usy big picture like building, an to be avoided, it will not look good.

2. Planning of a building-Principles.

  The basic principles of dwelling houses are as follows :

i) Aspect

ii) Prospect

iii)   Furniture requiring

iv) Roominess

v) Grouping

vi) Circulation

vii) Privacy

viii) Sanitation

ix) Elegance

x) Economy

xi) Flexibility

  1. Aspect : Aspect is actually positioning of the rooms in a building in such a way that occupant would enjoy the natural comforts to the maximum possible extent.
  2. Prospect : Prospect is found by the views desired from certain rooms of the house.
  3. Furniture requirement : It is essential item for living room, drawing room, kitchen, class room, laboratory room, operation theatre, office room etc. However, it is better to prepare a sketch plan, indicating furniture positions, so that doors, windows and circulation space can be planned.
  4. Roominess : Without disturbing/changing the plan, some spaces like cup-boards, lofts, wooden shelves etc. an to be provided. The rooms having its length twice the width is objectionable.
  5. Grouping : Grouping means setting different rooms of a building according to their inter-relationships. The rooms are arranged in the layout in proper correlation of their functions and due proximity with each other. For instance, in a residential building, dinning room should be close to kitchen. At the same twice kitchen should be kept away from main living room, to avoid smoke and smell.
  6. Circulation : Passages, corridors, halls, and lobbies, serve the purpose of horizontal circulation, where as stairs serve the purpose of vertical circulation. Circulation between rooms of the same floor is known as horizontal circulation, whereas circulation among various floors is known as vertical circulation.
  7. Privacy : Unless privacy is secured all the principles of planning of a building are bound to fail, particularly in case of residential buildings. Privacy may be from one part to other of the same building or it way be privacy as a whole from neighbouring buildings, public streets or by ways. The internal privacy means screening interior of one room from other room. Toilet rooms, lavatories bath rooms, bed room, w.c., urinals require absolute privacy.
  8. Sanitation : Sanitation is not only included w.c., urinals, both rooms, wash basins, sinks, but also lighting & ventilations.
  9. Elegance : The over-all effect-produced by elevation and general layout of the plan to known as alegance. It is better if elevation is developed first and then plan is adjusted according to the elevation. A building located in a depression will always give depressed elegance, when as building located on an elevated spot gives impressive appearance.
  10. Economy : The economy may not be a principle of planning, but definitely a factor effecting it. It is to be kept in mind that economy should not effect the utility and strength of the structure.
  11. Flexibility : Flexibility means planning the rooms in such a way which though originally designed for a specific purpose, may be used for other purpose also.
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