By: Aamarpali Puri

Human being suffering from infections and diseases are treated with the help of biotechnology. Biotechnology has been used both for diagnosis and therapy.

Different Instruments used for determining disease or disorder is as follows:

  1. Electrocardiograph (ECG): it records Myo-electrical changes during cardiac cycle and helps in understanding any abnormality in heart function (myocardial damage, angina, valvular defect or sino arterial blockage etc.
  2. Electro-encephalograph (EEG) is an electricity operated instrument having electron tube, transistors, microprocessors, microcomputers and digital that is used in recording frequency, amplitude and morphology of electric potential originating from different parts of brain in the form of waves. It can diagnose epilepsy, brain tumors, abscesses, subdural hematoma, and brain injury, sleep disorders, metabolic and drug effects on brain.
  3. Auto analyser: It is fully automatic, computerized instrument which can analyze qualitatively and quantitatively various bio chemicals present in body fluids like urea, uric acid, ketones, cholesterol, glucose, proteins enzymes etc.
  4. CT (Computerized Tomographic) Scanning is employed to obtain images of internal body part. X-ray imaging is carried out to detect diseases of lung, heart, fractures, joints and kidney through the formulations having barium and Iodine. It uses very low level radiations which are not harmful for human body. It can help study various parts inside skull and location of any pathological condition. CT scanning was developed by Godfrey Hansfield in 1972 (Nobel prize 1979)
  5. NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): It helps in mapping internal tissues, highlight pathological changes and study tissue metabolism. It uses a strong magnetic field created by super conductive magnets using liquid helium.
  6. Ultrasound Imaging (Sonography): It is useful in studying the health of internal organs and diagnosing disorders like kidney stones, gall bladder stones, fallopian tubes and uterus etc.
  7. Pace Maker is an electric device first developed by Chardack (1960) which is connected to heart for covering up any deficiency of myogenic functioning so as to make it beat normally (72-80/min) for 30-40 minutes.
  8. LASER (Light amplified by stimulated emission of radiation) can selectively burn out cancerous cells or break stones into fine powdery mass. It helps in treatment of opacity of eye lens, gall bladder stones, tumours, kidney stones etc.
  9. Implants are devices fitted in various body parts to overcome disorders, heart valves, joints, vascular grafts and cosmetic surgery.
  10. Oxygenator is disposable device and artificial lung for oxygenating blood. It is a liquid with high concentration of oxygen and low carbon dioxide can function as oxygenator.
  11. Artificial kidney In case of renal (kidney) failure (excessive concentration of urea or wastes in blood) an artificial kidney is employed at intervals.
  12. External Prosthesis is a device which can be attached to body for overcoming a defect artificial hand/arm, leg or denture etc.
  13. Cryopreservation of Organs: It helps in keeping intact living organs for long periods at low temperature. They are revived prior to use in reconstructive surgery.
  14. Skin Transplant: Skin can be Auto transplanted for quick re growth of skin. Allograft is skin transplant from other individual of same species. Heterograft is skin transplant from other individual of different species.

Approximately, twenty five different organs and tissues like kidney, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, bone, cartilage, bone marrow, skin and cornea can be transplanted [1]. Cardiologists have begun implanting tiny state-of-the-art microchip sensors in patients with advanced heart failure to better monitor symptoms and reduce chances of returning to the hospitals [2]. A biocompatible polymer selectively targets and lights up cancer tumors for a noninvasive imaging system, investigators report. Generating photo acoustic signals requires an ultrafast laser pulse to irradiate a small area of tissue. By ‘listening’ to the pressure differences created by the acoustic waves, researchers can reconstruct and visualize the inner structures of complex objects such as the brain and cardiovascular systems. Diagnosing cancer with photo acoustic imaging requires contrast agents that deeply penetrate tissue and selectively bind to malignant cells [3].



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