By: Aamarpali Puri
Clone as given in The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, is “a group of organism descended from a single individual through asexual reproduction”. Cloning is a scientific process of creating an exact replica of any living being with same face, same body and same genetic structure. Clone can be created from a single cell and thus, thousands and millions of replica can be created. Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical. Clones can happen naturally—identical twins are just one of many examples. Or they can be made in the lab. There are two ways to make an exact genetic copy of an organism in a lab: artificial embryo twinning and somatic cell nuclear transfer.
- Artificial Embryo Twinning
Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Artificial embryo twinning uses the same approach, but it is carried out in a Petri dish instead of inside the mother. A very early embryo is separated into individual cells, which are allowed to divide and develop for a short time in the Petri dish. The embryos are then placed into a surrogate mother, where they finish developing. Again, since all the embryos came from the same fertilized egg, they are genetically identical.
- Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), also called nuclear transfer, uses a different approach than artificial embryo twinning, but it produces the same result: an exact genetic copy, or clone, of an individual. This was the method used to create Dolly the Sheep. In plants, reproduction by this kind of cloning is commonly termed as vegetative reproduction.
Cloning is less common in animals. Natural cloning is discovered in fishes, amphibians and reptiles. The meaning of clone is “twig”.Artificial cloning is done in grapes. Cloning from single cells in laboratory began with carrots in 1950s. Cloning of frogs is also done in laboratories. In the 1970s frogs and other amphibians had been cloned in the laboratory but no mammals had ever been cloned. The first adult mammal to be successfully cloned was not a laboratory mouse, it was a sheep named Dolly (1997). It was produced from udder of a sheep, which is a part of skin. Human cloning is prohibited. Cloning is a dangerous technique since it gives ultimate freedom to biologists to create any living being according to their choice and will, thus imposing great danger to society.
There are many citations which reveal that cloning was known to sages. In the Hindu epic Ramayana, Lord Agni seeing the future that Sita would be kidnapped by Ravana, played a trick by creating a live replica of Sita (Maya Sita or Phantom Sita) through meditation. In the great Rama-Ravana battle, Ravana was killed and Sri Rama took back Sita to his kingdom. Then respecting public opinion and wishing to establish in public the purity of his queen King Sri Rama put her into the fire. At that moment Agni took back the replica and gave back the real Sita to Sri Rama. Later, on the advice of Rama and Agni, the Phantom Sita went to the sacred place Puskara and started doing tapas (penance) there. This ‘clone or Maya’ Sita became known as Svargalakshmi and in Mahabharata era she became Panchali or Draupadi, who was born out of fire.
Kusha son of Sita is reported to be clone of Lava. He was created by Valmiki from some dry grass (kusha in Sanskrit). He with his scientific knowledge was able to create human baby from a grass.
No woman can give birth to 100 children in her lifetime, that too all males and of the same age,” In Mahabharata under the chapter Adiparva that actually describes how the Kauravas were created from a single embryo from Gandhari. According to the description in Mahabharata, the Kauravas were created by splitting the single embryo into 100 parts and growing each part in a separate kund or container. Ancient Indians not only knew about test-tube babies /cloning and embryo splitting but also had the technology to grow human fetuses outside the body of a woman-something that is not known to modern science. Such stories on cloning are written in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata but no concrete evidence of it has been found anywhere.
*Note: It has been reported that both Russia and The United States Government have had secret human cloning programs going since before the 1950’s. Both Vladimir Putin and Barack Obama are products of secret human cloning programs. 
Putin is a clone of Julius Caesar and Obama is a clone of a pharaoh from Ancient Egypt. Not only that, but Obama was created in a lab and has 3 parent DNA and George HW Bush is his father.