A study of educational interest of Xth Class Students in relation to gender and location

By: Gagandeep Tiwana

Assistant Professor Pine Grove College Of Education, Bassi Pathanan, Punjab, India.

Abstract

The purpose of present study is to look into educational interest patterns of xth class students across gender and locale. For this purpose t-test was applied to find out significance of mean difference in different interest areas namely (agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities, science, technology) for male and females, rural and urban groups.

Introduction

Education is a continuous process in which the teacher guides the progress of each pupil at every stage after ascertaining the rate, direction & extent of previous development. Having accepted the educational principle that maximum growth of each pupil is to be secured according to his individual needs and capacities; Periodic measures of each child’s abilities, previous attainments and speed become necessary. Only when his progress and potential is known and he can be guided in advancing along the road to desired educational objectives. New ideas and new ways of life are sought through education without education the individual would be un-qualified for group life by (Goeting). Concept of education is still in a process of evolution and this process never come to be static. It is rightly said that education deals with ever growing in man in an ever growing society. The function of education is conceived to be the adjustment of man to his environment which contemplates mans adaptation to and the reconstruction of his environment to the end  (Nelson). ‘An interest may be defined as a tendency to make consistent choices in a certain direction without external pressure and in the face of alternatives, i.e. it represents a tendency to select certain activities or things in preference to certain others’.

           “Interest is that excitement of feeling which gives rise to attention.” This mental excitement may be intellectual or sympathetic and emotional, or merely personal, as an interest in philosophical research, in human suffering in money getting.

         It is an expression of likes and dislikes, our attractions and aversions. A phenomenon of acceptance or rejection is involved in the issue of likes and dislikes. An individual chooses the most acceptable alternative out of the many, going after preferred objectives of activities and consequently derives satisfaction, success and happiness out of the activities selected. The identification and assessment of interests in the case of an individual serves a purpose which can be served by no other means.

Kinds of Interest

Interests are natural, acquired, intrinsic or extrinsic.

       Natural interests are interests arising from natural tendencies like instincts and emotions.Acquired interests are due to acquired dispositions like sentiments, habits, character, ideals and tastes. Intrinsic interest is the deep-rooted interest. Extrinsic interest is motivated by some external forces.

Conflicting Interests

          Interests at a particular time vary. There are immediate interests and permanent interests. There are interests of opposite nature that some time conflict with each other. Even the young pupil may face dilemma of conflicting interests when he is in completing in home-task and is also invited by his playmates to play. A child may have some selected interests, but some children have a number of varied interests and what is needed here is maintaining a proper balance of interests. Immediate interest may be followed but not to the detriment of permanent interests. Therefore, educational guidance should be provided to the child from the very early stage when the child enters school and continues even after a stable choice has been made.

           Interest means to make a difference. “It describes why the organisms tend to favour some situation and thus comes to react to them in a very selective manner.’ Interests and attention are very closely related. Interests are one of the key factors among the non-intellectual factors. Therefore the identification and measurement of interests, is very essential for the educational and vocational guidance. The educational interest play very significant role in educational guidance. Educational guidance is the process of helping a student to develop, to accept, to integrate adequate picture of himself and a clear undertaking of his problems and of his role in the world of education (School and college), with satisfaction to himself and benefit to school and society. Therefore ‘educational-guidance’ is needed at all stages of education (from nursery to college).

 Objectives

  • To study the educational interest of Secondary School students in relation to gender.
  • To study the educational interest of Secondary School students in relation to location.

 Hypothesis

  • There is no significant difference in educational interest among boys and girls.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest among rural and urban students.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest of male students belonging to rural and urban areas.
  • There is no significant difference in educational interest of female students belonging to rural and urban areas.

Methodology

For the present study the investigator adopted the descriptive method for collection of data because this method was considered to be more suitable for the present problem. A sample of 200 students, both boys (rural 50 and Urban 50) and girls (rural 50 and urban 50) of Xth class was drawn from eight schools, situated in Fatehgarh Sahib District.The tool used were Educational Interest Record (EIR) prepared by Dr. S.P. Kulsherstha (2005) was used to conduct the present study

       EIR was first developed in the year 1965 which was thoroughly revised in 1970, 1975 and 1978 by the author. This record has been consistently in use in various research studies, research projects and also proved easy and beneficial for the testing students

       This record has been successfully used for more than a decade and found suitable at delta and higher secondary level. Many research workers later found it also very important and useful for college students and young adults out of schools and colleges.

 Areas of Educational Interest Record (EIR)

The present record contains 98 educational subjects/activities belonging to seven different educational interest areas. They are-

  • Agriculture (AG)
  • Commerce (Co)
  • Fine Arts (FA)
  • Home Science (HS)
  • Humanities (HU)
  • Science (SC)
  • Technology (TE)

Thus, each of these educational areas (based on school faculties system) has fourteen subjects on the record, seven on horizontal and seven on vertical side.

Statistical Techniques

In order to accomplish the objective of the present study, Mean, Standard deviation, t-test was used.

Results and Discussion

The results have been discussed under the following headings:

  1. Gender Differences in different Educational Interest Areas.
  2. Rural and Urban Differenes in different Eduational Interest areas.
  3. Gender differences in Educational Interest of rural and urban

Gender Differences in Different Educational Interest Areas

The means and SD’s of male and female Xth class students in different educational interest areas are given in table 1.  The t-values, testing significance of mean differences are also shown in table 1.

TABLE 1  Mean’s and SD’s of Secondary School Students across Gender Groups along with t-value

  Male (N = 100) Female (N = 100) t-value
Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 5.56 3.16 3.84 2.59 3.01**
Commerce 5.88 2.55 3.86 2.04 4.39**
Fine Arts 4.90 2.23 7.68 3.92 4.41**
Home Science 5.00 2.33 8.80 3.63 6.33**
Humanities 6.64 2.39 6.24 2.12 0.90
Science 4.98 2.84 4.60 2.60 0.70
Technology 6.56 2.75 4.14 2.42 4.74**

** p < .01.

The table 1 shows that Xth class males have a mean score of 5.56, 5.88, 4.90, 5.00 and 6.56 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology respectively. The respective mean score’s for Xth class Girl’s students came out to be 3.84, 3.86, 7.68, 8.80 and 4.14.

The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology came out to be 3.01, 4.39, 4.41, 6.33 and 4.74. All the t-values are significant.

In case of interest areas of humanities and science the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male’s and female turned out to be 0.90 and 0.70 respectively and are not significant even at .05 level. Hence the hypothesis “there is no difference in educational interest of secondary school male and female students” is rejected. It may be concluded that:

  • Xth class male students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to  Xth  class female students.
  • The Xth class female students have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts, home science as compared to Xth  class male students.

Rural and Urban differences in educational interest AREAS:

The means and SD’s of rural and urban students in different educational areas along with t-values are given in table 2.

TABLE 2  Mean’s and SD’s of Secondary School Students across Urban and Rural Groups along with t-value

  Urban (N = 100) Rural (N = 100) t-value
Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 6.30 3.01 3.10 2.73 5.63**
Commerce 6.32 1.93 3.42 2.67 6.30**
Fine Arts 6.58 4.2 6.00 1.84 0.87
Home Science 6.70 3.64 7.10 2.32 0.65
Humanities 6.56 2.02 6.32 2.49 0.53
Science 5.70 2.59 3.88 2.86 3.37**
Technology 6.04 2.16 4.66 3.01 2.65**

** p <** p < .01.

The table 2 shows that Xth class urban students have a mean score of 6.30, 6.32, 5.70, and 6.04 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, science, and technology respectively.

The respective mean score’s for Xth class rural students came out to be 3.10, 3.42, 3.88 and 4.66. The t-value’s testing the significance of mean difference in interest areas of agriculture, commerce, science, and technology came out to be 5.63, 6.30, 3.37 and 2.65. All the t-values are significant.

In case of interest areas of fine arts, home science and humanities, the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between urban and rural students turned out to be 0.87, 0.65 and 0.53 respectively and these are not significant even at .05 level. Hence the hypothesis “there is no significant difference in educational interest of rural and urban senior secondary students is rejected”. It may be concluded that Xth class urban students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce, science and technology as compared to  Xth class students of rural groups.

The findings are in contrary to the findings of Saraswat (1988) that male and females, rural-urban students, science art students significantly differed in their academic achievement, occupational aspiration and achievement–motivation.

Gender Difference in Educational Interest of Rural and Urban students

Urban Group

The means and SDs of male and female students in urban group in different educational areas along with t-values are given in table 3.

 TABLE 3

Mean’s and SD’s of Urban and Rural students in Gender Differences in Different Educational Areas along with t-values

 

Urban

t-value

Rural

t-value
Male

(N=50)

Female

(N=50)

Male

(N=50)

Female

(N=50)

Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD Mean SD
Agriculture 6.8 3.46 5.80 2.57 1.64 4.32 2.86 1.88 2.61 4.44**
Commerce 7.24 2.00 5.40 1.86 4.72** 4.52 3.11 2.32 2.23 4.24**
Fine Arts 5.48 2.65 7.68 5.99 2.36* 4.32 1.82 7.68 1.86 9.08*
Home Science 4.92 2.49 8.48 4.80 4.68* 5.08 2.18 9.12 2.47 8.78**
Humanities 7.04 2.27 6.08 1.78 2.34* 6.24 2.52 6.40 2.46 0.33
Science 6.20 2.75 5.2 2.43 1.96 3.76 2.94 4.00 2.78 0.42
Technology 7.24 2.15 4.84 2.18 5.58** 5.88 3.36 3.44 2.66 6.10**

* p < .05      ** p <.01

       The table 3 show’s that in urban and rural students, urban students (male and female) male students have a mean score of 7.24, 5.48, 4.92, 7.04 and 7.24 in the interest areas of commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities and technology respectively.The respective mean scores for Xth class female students came out to be 5.40, 7.68, 8.48, 6.08 and 4.84.
The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of commerce, fine arts, home science, humanities and technology came out to be 4.72, 2.36, 4.68, 2.34 and 5.58.  As may be seen from table 3 that, (i) Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce, humanities and technology as compared to Female students of urban group; and (ii) female students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of Urban Group.

In case of interest areas of agriculture and science, the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male and female students of urban group students turned out to be 1.64 and 1.94 respectively and these are not significant even at .05 level.

Rural Group

  The table 3 shows that in urban and rural students, rural students (male and female) male students have a mean score of 4.32, 4.52, 4.32, 5.08 and 5.88 in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology respectively. The respective mean scores for female students came out to be 1.88, 2.32, 7.68, 9.12 and 3.44.

The t-values testing the significance of mean difference in the interest areas of agriculture, commerce, fine arts, home science and technology came out to be 4.44, 4.24, 9.08, 8.78 and 6.10. It may be observed that: (i) Male students of rural group have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to female students of rural groups; and (ii) female students of rural group have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of rural group.

In case of interest areas of humanities and science the t-values testing the significance of mean difference between male and female students of rural group students turned out to 0.33 and 0.42 respectively and this are not significant even at 0.5 level.

Hence the hypothesis “there is no significant difference in educational interest of male and female students belonging to rural and urban groups” is rejected. It may be concluded that:

  • Male students of urban and rural students group have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce, technology as compared to female students of urban and rural group.
  • Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in humanities as compared to female students of urban group.
  • Female students of rural and urban groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts and home science as compared to male students of rural and urban groups.

The similar trend is observed in the study of Gautam (1988) that (1) A significant correlation was noted in the preference orders of urban and rural students of class VIII in both educational and vocational interest areas, which means that their interest preferences were similar (ii) significant differences in most of the interest areas were found between the scores of rural and urban males. While in case of female’s significant differences could be noticed only in few interest areas.

 Major Findings

  • The Xth class male students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce and technology as compared to Xth class female students.
  • The Xth class female students have significantly higher level of educational interest in fine arts, home science as compared to Xth class male students.
  • The Xth class urban students have significantly higher level of educational interest in agriculture, commerce, science and technology as compared to Xth class rural students.
  • Male students of urban and rural groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in commerce and technology as compared to female students of urban and rural group.
  • Male students of urban group have significantly higher level of educational interest in humanities as compared to female students of urban group.
  • Female student of rural and urban groups have significantly higher level of educational interest in arts and home science as compared to male students of rural and urban group.

Conclusion

Modern education requires that each student must be given the opportunity to advance as fast as he could or as slowly as he must. it is also mentioned earlier that to produce on aware citizenry, the process of imparting educational interest  needs attention at all levels but at school level it needs much more emphasis because students of today are the citizens of tomorrow and hence would be playing a critical role in the development of the nation. Proper guidance should be given to the child, so that they can choose Educational subjects according to their abilities, interest, capacities, potentials etc.

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